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PubMed Journal Database | Cognition RSS

13:13 EST 18th February 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 502 from Cognition

Which cognitive tools do we prefer to use, and is that preference rational?

This work aims to address the issue of which kind of cognitive tools we prefer, and whether this preference is rational. To do so, we proposed three experiments in which participants had to play the game Guess Who? by choosing between three tools that assisted them in three distinct cognitive functions (Working memory vs. Selective visual attention vs. Decision-making). In Experiment 3, additional tasks were proposed to assess participants' performance and meta-representations in working memory, selective v...

Memory enhancements from active control of learning emerge across development.

This paper investigates whether active control of study leads to enhanced learning in 5- to 11-year-old children. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants played a simple memory game with the instruction to try to remember and later recognize a set of 64 objects. In Experiment 3, the goal was to learn the French names for the same objects. For half of the materials presented, participants could decide the order and pacing of study (Active condition). For the other half, they passively observed the study decisio...

Partisan mathematical processing of political polling statistics: It's the expectations that count.

In this research, we investigated voters' mathematical processing of election-related information before and after the 2012 and 2016 U.S. Presidential Elections. We presented voters with mental math problems based on fictional polling results, and asked participants who they intended to vote for and who they expected to win. We found that committed voters (in both 2012 and 2016) demonstrated wishful thinking, with inflated expectations that their preferred candidate would win. When performing mathematical o...

Superior learning in synesthetes: Consistent grapheme-color associations facilitate statistical learning.

In synesthesia activation in one sensory domain, such as smell or sound, triggers an involuntary and unusual secondary sensory or cognitive experience. In the present study, we ask whether the added sensory experience of synesthesia can aid statistical learning-the ability to track environmental regularities in order to segment continuous information. To investigate this, we measured statistical learning outcomes, using an aurally presented artificial language, in two groups of synesthetes alongside control...

Complex probability expressions & higher-order uncertainty: Compositional semantics, probabilistic pragmatics & experimental data.

We present novel experimental data pertaining to the use and interpretation of simple probability expressions (such as possible or likely) and complex ones (such as possibly likely or certainly possible) in situations of higher-order uncertainty, i.e., where speakers may be uncertain about the probability of a chance event. The data is used to critically assess a probabilistic pragmatics model in the vein of Rational Speech Act approaches (e.g., Frank and Goodman, 2012; Franke and Jäger, 2016; Goodman and ...

The precision of attentional selection is far worse than the precision of the underlying memory representation.

Voluntary attentional selection requires the match of sensory input to a stored representation of the target features. We compared the precision of attentional selection to the precision of the underlying memory representation of the target. To measure the precision of attentional selection, we used a cue-target paradigm where participants searched for a colored target. Typically, RTs are shorter at the cued compared to uncued locations when the cue has the same color as the target. In contrast, cueing effe...

Metacognition across sensory modalities: Vision, warmth, and nociceptive pain.

The distinctive experience of pain, beyond mere processing of nociceptive inputs, is much debated in psychology and neuroscience. One aspect of perceptual experience is captured by metacognition-the ability to monitor and evaluate one's own mental processes. We investigated confidence in judgements about nociceptive pain (i.e. pain that arises from the activation of nociceptors by a noxious stimulus) to determine whether metacognitive processes contribute to the distinctiveness of the pain experience. Our p...

Decisional space modulates visual categorization - Evidence from saccadic reaction times.

Manual and saccadic reaction times (SRTs) have been used to determine the minimum time required for different types of visual categorizations. Such studies have demonstrated extremely rapid detection of faces within natural scenes, whereas increasingly complex decisions (i.e. levels of processing) require longer processing times. We reasoned that visual categorization speed is not only dependent on the processing level, but is further affected by decisional space constraints. In the context of two different...

Intermediate coding versus direct mapping accounts for the SNARC effect: Santens and Gevers (2008) revisited.

Intermediate coding accounts have been used to provide an explanation for the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect and can be contrasted with the classic direct spatial mapping account of such an association (i.e., from the mental number line directly to the responses). Importantly, a study by Santens and Gevers (2008)'s has been widely referenced in support of intermediate coding, with 90 citations at the time of writing. Hence, the current study attempted to replicate Santens and...

Identity fusion, outgroup relations, and sacrifice: A cross-cultural test.

Identity fusion theory has become a popular psychological explanation of costly self-sacrifice. It posits that while maintaining one's own individual identity, a deep affinity with one's group can contribute to sacrifice for that group. We test this and related hypotheses using a behavioral economic experiment designed to detect biased, self-interested favoritism among eight different populations ranging from foragers and horticulturalists to the fully market-integrated. We find that while individuals favor...

Adaptive memory: Source memory is positively associated with adaptive social decision making.

The key insight behind the adaptive memory framework is that the primary function of remembering is not to help us to relive the past but to inform adaptive behavior in the future. However, the beneficial effects of memory on the individual's fitness are often difficult to study empirically. In the case of social cooperation, it is comparatively easy to derive testable predictions about the relationship between specific types of memory (e.g., source memory) and specific types of adaptive decision making (e....

How the inference of hierarchical rules unfolds over time.

Inductive reasoning, which entails reaching conclusions that are based on but go beyond available evidence, has long been of interest in cognitive science. Nevertheless, knowledge is still lacking as to the specific cognitive processes that underlie inductive reasoning. Here, we shed light on these processes in two ways. First, we characterized the timecourse of inductive reasoning in a rule induction task, using pupil dilation as a moment-by-moment measure of cognitive load. Participants' patterns of behav...

Literacy improves short-term serial recall of spoken verbal but not visuospatial items - Evidence from illiterate and literate adults.

It is widely accepted that specific memory processes, such as serial-order memory, are involved in written language development and predictive of reading and spelling abilities. The reverse question, namely whether orthographic abilities also affect serial-order memory, has hardly been investigated. In the current study, we compared 20 illiterate people with a group of 20 literate matched controls on a verbal and a visuospatial version of the Hebb paradigm, measuring both short- and long-term serial-order m...

A hierarchical model of social perception: Psychophysical evidence suggests late rather than early integration of visual information from facial expression and body posture.

Facial expressions are one of the most important sources of information about another's emotional states. More recently, other cues such as body posture have been shown to influence how facial expressions are perceived. It has been argued that this biasing effect is underpinned by an early integration of visual information from facial expression and body posture. Here, we replicate this biasing effect, but, using a psychophysical procedure, show that adaptation to facial expressions is unaffected by body co...

Does language similarity affect representational integration?

Previous studies have suggested that multilingual speakers do not represent their languages entirely separately but instead share some representations across languages. To determine whether sharing is affected by language similarity, we investigated whether participants' tendency to repeat syntax across languages was affected by language similarity. In three cross-linguistic structural priming experiments, trilingual Mandarin-Cantonese-English participants heard a sentence in Cantonese or English (which the...

Conscious and unconscious memory differentially impact attention: Eye movements, visual search, and recognition processes.

A hotly debated question is whether memory influences attention through conscious or unconscious processes. To address this controversy, we measured eye movements while participants searched repeated real-world scenes for embedded targets, and we assessed memory for each scene using confidence-based methods to isolate different states of subjective memory awareness. We found that memory-informed eye movements during visual search were predicted both by conscious recollection, which led to a highly precise f...

Sound symbolism in sighted and blind. The role of vision and orthography in sound-shape correspondences.

Non-arbitrary sound-shape correspondences (SSC), such as the "bouba-kiki" effect, have been consistently observed across languages and together with other sound-symbolic phenomena challenge the classic linguistic dictum of the arbitrariness of the sign. Yet, it is unclear what makes a sound "round" or "spiky" to the human mind. Here we tested the hypothesis that visual experience is necessary for the emergence of SSC, supported by empirical evidence showing reduced SSC in visually impaired people. Results o...

Acquisition and processing of an artificial mini-language combining semantic and syntactic elements.

Most artificial grammar tasks require the learning of sequences devoid of meaning. Here, we introduce a learning task that allows studying the acquisition and processing of a mini-language of arithmetic with both syntactic and semantic components. In this language, symbols have values that predict the probability of being rewarded for a right or left response. Novel to our paradigm is the presence of a syntactic operator which changes the sign of the subsequent value. By continuously tracking finger movemen...

Word frequency effects in sound change as a consequence of perceptual asymmetries: An exemplar-based model.

Empirically-observed word frequency effects in regular sound change present a puzzle: how can high-frequency words change faster than low-frequency words in some cases, slower in other cases, and at the same rate in yet other cases? We argue that this puzzle can be answered by giving substantial weight to the role of the listener. We present an exemplar-based computational model of regular sound change in which the listener plays a large role, and we demonstrate that it generates sound changes with properti...

Explanation recruits comparison in a category-learning task.

Generating explanations can be highly effective in promoting category learning; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that engaging in explanation can recruit comparison processes, and that this in turn contributes to the effectiveness of explanation in supporting category learning. Three experiments evaluated the interplay between explanation and various comparison strategies in learning artificial categories. In Experiment 1, as expected, prompting participants to explain...

Is scaling up harder than scaling down? How children and adults visually scale distance from memory.

In three experiments (N = 288), we examined how the direction of the scale translation impacts how 4- to 5-year-old children and adults visually scale distance from memory. Participants first watched an experimenter place an object on a learning mat and then attempted to place a replica object on a test mat that was either identical (no scaling task) or different in scale (scaling task). In Experiment 1, both children and adults had difficulty scaling up from 16 to 128 in. (1:8 scaling ratio) but not ...

Reference repulsion is not a perceptual illusion.

Perceptual decisions are often influenced by contextual factors. For instance, when engaged in a visual discrimination task against a reference boundary, subjective reports about the judged stimulus feature are biased away from the boundary - a phenomenon termed reference repulsion. Until recently, this phenomenon has been thought to reflect a perceptual illusion regarding the appearance of the stimulus, but new evidence suggests that it may rather reflect a post-perceptual decision bias. To shed light on t...

Distinct roles of eye movements during memory encoding and retrieval.

A long line of research has shown that vision and memory are closely linked, such that particular eye movement behaviour aids memory performance. In two experiments, we ask whether the positive influence of eye movements on memory is primarily a result of overt visual exploration during the encoding or the recognition phase. Experiment 1 allowed participants to free-view images of scenes, followed by a new-old recognition memory task. Exploratory analyses found that eye movements during study were predictiv...

What we know about knowing: Presuppositions generated by factive verbs influence downstream neural processing.

Presuppositions convey information that comprehenders assume to be true, even when it is tangential to the communicator's main message. For example, a class of verbs called 'factives' (e.g. realize, know) trigger the presupposition that the events or states conveyed by their sentential complements are true. In contrast, non-factive verbs (e.g. think, believe) do not trigger this presupposition. We asked whether, during language comprehension, presuppositions triggered by factive verbs are encoded within the...

Identity-motivated reasoning: Biased judgments regarding political leaders and their actions.

We investigate how constituents interpret information about political leaders in the course of forming judgments about them. More specifically, we are interested in the intentionality attributed to the actions and decisions taken by political leaders - whether they are perceived as designed to benefit the politician's own interests, or the interests of the public. In two field studies, we show that the political orientation of constituents plays a central role in driving constituents' judgments about politi...


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