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PubMed Journal Database | Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases RSS

04:23 EST 25th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 71 from Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases

Differential antigen recognition by serum antibodies from three bovid hosts of Mycobacterium bovis infection.

Cattle, bison and buffaloes are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent for bovine tuberculosis. Accurate and timely identification of infected animals is critical for improved management and control of disease in these species. Bovids develop humoral immune responses to M. bovis infection making serological tests attractive for tuberculosis screening. However, optimization and validation of antibody assays designed for various animal species require understanding of antigen recognition patt...

Surveillance of Francisella tularensis in surface water of Kurdistan province, west of Iran.

The etiologic agent of tularemia, Francisella tularensis, is transmitted to humans via ingestion of contaminated water or food, arthropods bite, respiratory aerosols, or direct contact with infected animals body fluids or tissues. In the current study, due to the importance of water in transmitting the disease and the report of the disease in different regions of Iran, surface water of Kurdistan province were evaluated for the presence of F.tularensis.

A comparison of commercial modified-live PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 vaccines against a dual heterologous PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 challenge in late term pregnancy gilts.

This study compared the efficacy, in terms of reproductive performance, of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-1 or PRRSV-2 modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine against a dual heterologous PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 challenge. Gilts were administered either the PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 MLV vaccine at 21 days prior to breeding and were challenged intranasally with both PRRSV species at day 93 of gestation. Vaccination of gilts with PRRSV-2 MLV vaccine resulted in improved reproductive performance i...

Toxoplasma gondii surface antigen 1 (SAG1) as a potential candidate to develop vaccine against toxoplasmosis: A systematic review.

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that infects a broad range of animal species and humans. As the main surface antigen of the tachyzoite, SAG1 is involved in the process of recognition, adhesion and invasion of host cells. The aim of the current systematic review study is to clarify the latest status of studies in the literature regarding SAG1-associated recombinant proteins or SAG1-associated recombinant DNAs as potential vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Data were systematically collected from ...

Phylogenetic divergence between Rickettsia amblyommatis strains from Argentina.

The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a phylogenetic divergence of Rickettsia amblyommatis strains from different phytogeographic provinces of Argentina and South America. Therefore, ompA and ompB gene sequences of R. amblyommatis DNA detected in Amblyomma hadanii and Amblyomma neumanni ticks from the Yungas and Chaco phytogeographic provinces, respectively, were obtained. These sequences were compared with GenBank sequences from R. amblyommatis from different countries of the American contin...

Vaccination with a novel multi-epitope ROP8 DNA vaccine against acute Toxoplasma gondii infection induces strong B and T cell responses in mice.

Rhoptry proteins (ROPs) are involved in the cell invasion and parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formation and also vital for survival of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) within host cells. ROP8 have a main role during the early phase of infection and can express in tachyzoite and bradyzoite forms. In the present study, we designed a novel multi-epitope DNA vaccine encoding the potential B and T-cell epitopes from ROP8 protein to evaluate the immunity and protective efficacy against acute T. gondii infection in BALB...

Molecular study and genotyping of Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium parvum from free-range and commercial broiler chickens in Guilan province, Iran.

Cryptosporidiosis acutely impacts the digestive and/or respiratory tract of the birds in many species of various orders. More importantly, it is also well known as a significant zoonotic disease, which can lead to diarrhea in humans and livestock. Regarding increasing demand for free-range products and increasing the number of free-range poultry farms, the present paper evaluated histopathological and molecular detection of Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium parvum in free-range and commercial broi...

First serological evidence of West Nile virus infection in wild birds in Northern Algeria.

While the epidemiology of Flaviviruses has been extensively studied in most of the Mediterranean basin, little is known about the current situation in Algeria. In order to detect the circulation of West Nile (WNV) and Usutu viruses (USUV) in Kabylia, 165 sera were collected from two wild birds species, namely the long distance migrant Turdus philomelos (song thrush) (n = 92) and the resident Passer domesticus (house sparrow) (n = 73). A total of 154 sera were first analyzed by commercial competition...

Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) in free-ranging bats from Southern Brazil.

Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are bacteria distributed worldwide and affect domestic and wildlife animals and human beings. Hemoplasmas have been described infecting hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats; however, transmission risk and zoonotic potential in vampire bats remain to be fully established. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of hemotropic mycoplasma species in free-ranging bats from this area using a universal PCR protocol for hemoplasmas. Accordingly, ten blood samples were coll...

Serum amyloid A (SAA) mRNA expression in chicken and quails in response to bacterial stress.

Monitoring of acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid A at gene expression level may provide quick information about immune status of the host and its susceptibility towards common infections. Present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the mRNA expression of SAA gene in Rhode Island Red chicken (RIR) and Japanese quails using real time PCR analysis in response to inactivated Salmonella gallinarum culture. The results showed that expression of SAA gene was approximately 17-33 folds higher in ca...

Incorrect reports of Eimeria spp. from dogs-Veterinary and medical parasitologists should work closer.

Molecular detection of avian spirochete Borrelia anserina in Argas persicus ticks in Algeria.

Argasid ticks are one of the most important poultry ectoparasites. They affect poultry directly through blood meal and indirectly through the transmission of pathogens essentially Borrelia anserina, agent of avian borreliosis, one of the most widespread poultry diseases in the world, and is of great economic importance. This study was conducted between April 2014 and March 2015 in the region of Ksar El Boukhari, Algeria, in order to investigate the presence of soft ticks in laying hen farms and to detect B....

Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Enteritidis specific bacteriophages isolated form poultry faeces as a complementary tool for cleaning and disinfection against Salmonella.

Salmonellosis represents an important public health concern. Several authors point out the inefficiency of the cleaning and disinfection protocols to remove the bacteria from the field. For this reason, innovative techniques, as bacteriophages, could be implemented to control the bacteria. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effect of bacteriophages against Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Enteritidis on farm surfaces, and to evaluate bacteriophage procedure application as sanitiser again...

Molecular survey of Dirofilaria species in stray dogs, red foxes and golden jackals from Vojvodina, Serbia.

Cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and other carnivores is caused by Dirofilaria immitis, while Dirofilaria repens usually causes a subcutaneous infection. The importance of red foxes and golden jackals in the epidemiology of dirofilariosis remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional molecular survey of Dirofilaria species in stray dogs, red foxes and golden jackals from the endemic region of Vojvodina, Serbia, in order to determine and update data on their prevalence a...

Comparative evaluation of Cryptosporidium infection in malnourished and well-nourished children: Parasitic infections are affected by the interaction of nutritional status and socio-demographic characteristics.

Cryptosporidium, as a small protozoan parasite, is a leading cause of persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries and has both a short and long-term impact on the growth of children. In the present study, Cryptosporidium infection was compared in malnourished and well-nourished children by modified acid-fast staining, nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods. As a case-control study, Cryptosporidium infection in 94 malnourished child...

Comprehensive network map of transcriptional activation of chicken type I IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes.

Chicken type I interferons (type I IFNs) are key antiviral players of the chicken immune system and mediate the first line of defense against viral pathogens infecting the avian species. Recognition of viral pathogens by specific pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) induce chicken type I IFNs expression followed by their subsequent interaction to IFN receptors and induction of a variety of IFN stimulated antiviral proteins. These antiviral effectors establish the antiviral state in neighboring cells and thu...

Fowl adenoviruse-4 infection induces strong innate immune responses in chicken.

Fowl adenovirus (FAdV), as the causative agent of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS), poses a significant threat to the poultry industry in China in recent years. In this study, we investigated the immunopathogenesis of a FAdV-4 strain HN/151025 in 60-day-old chickens. The virus was highly virulent in chickens, with a broader tissue tropism in chickens, causing 60 % mortality. Postmortem findings of dead chickens showed mild HHS and liver degeneration and necrosis. Importantly, FAdV-4 infection induc...

Molecular detection of Leptospira spp. in wild boar (Sus scrofa) hunted in Liguria region (Italy).

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging and widespread zoonosis, worldwide distributed, due to a wide variety of wild and domestic animal species able to act as natural or accidental hosts. During last years, in Europe, as in Italy, wild boar (Sus scrofa) population is increased. This animal represents a reservoir for different etiological agents, such as Leptospira. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of Leptospira spp. in wild boar hunted in Liguria region (Italy) during two-year hunting s...

Coupling photocatalytic degradation using a green TiO catalyst to membrane bioreactor for petroleum refinery wastewater reclamation.

This work presents an environmentally friendly synthesis of TiO nanoparticles assisted by microwave, from titanium tetrachloride and water, with potential for the treatment of petroleum refinery effluent. Anatase nanocrystalline particles with a mean crystallite size of 14 nm were obtained according to XRD, TEM and EELS characterization. UF-Permeate from a Membrane Bioreactor treating real refinery effluent was subjected to photodegradation in the presence of the catalyst synthesized under UV-C irradiatio...

Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis infection, co-morbidities and associated risk factors in dogs admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital in Israel.

Giardia duodenalis causes gastro-intestinal (GI) disease and carries a zoonotic risk. The risk for infection depends on local prevalence and individual immunity, but clinical signs are inconsistent and the role of G. duodenalis in other GI diseases is unknown. The current study aims were to evaluate the prevalence of G. duodenalis in dogs presented to a university veterinary teaching hospital in Israel, investigate risk factors for infection and its associations with other diseases. Fecal samples from 163 d...

Differential expression of immune-related genes in the bursa of Fabricius of two inbred chicken lines following infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

Among different inbred chickens' lines, we previously showed that lines P and N of Institute for Animal Health, Compton, UK are the most susceptible and the least affected lines, respectively, following infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV). In this study, the differential expressions of 29 different immune-related genes were characterized. Although, birds from both lines succumbed to infection, line P showed greater bursal lesion scores and higher viral copy numbers compared...

Seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burentii infection in camels in Egypt.

Q fever caused by Coxiella burentii, gram negative obligate intracellular bacterium. The disease has been reported in wide range of animals especially ruminants. The available data about the prevalence of Q fever in camels in Egypt are limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii among camels and identify the risk factors associated with infection. A total 315 serum samples were collected from three governorates in Egypt during 2018 and examined by an indirect...

Comparative effects of Herba Cox®, a commercial herbal extract, on rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infected with Eimeria stiedae.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Herba Cox®, a commercial herbal compound containing extracts from Bombax malabaricum, Aegle marmelos, Anethum foeniculum, Resina salvia, Ferula asafoetida and Papaver somniferum, for the treatment of rabbit hepatic coccidiosis. Thirty rabbits were allocated into three groups (10 × 3), the G1 group served as a negative control group, G2 group (positive control group) was infected with 5 × 10 sporulated E. stiedaeoocysts and served as infe...

Mucosal and systemic immune responses to Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) in early vaccinated piglets.

Newborn humans and animals are highly susceptible to viral infections. The Aujeszky´s disease virus (ADV) is a porcine herpes virus 1 which infects the respiratory tract and is lethal during the first weeks of life. Current intramuscular vaccines, applied at weaning, induce poor mucosal immunity and frequently fail to prevent and control the disease. Additionally, early vaccination has not been studied thoroughly. Therefore, we studied a systemic/mucosal route of immunization using an inactivated ADV vacci...

Variation of the CD4, CD8, and MHC II cell population in granulomas of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed rabbits in Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection.

Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) is a fungi-related, obligate, zoonotic, spore-forming intracellular eukaryotic microorganism. This emerging pathogen causes granulomas in brain and kidneys of infected individuals. The objective of this study was to detect the distribution of CD4, CD8 and MHCII-positive cells within granulomas in these organs in infected immunocompetent (group A) and infected immunosuppressed (group B) New Zealand white rabbits using immunohistochemistry. In brain, labeled CD4 immune c...


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