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PubMed Journal Database | Consciousness and cognition RSS

05:17 EST 26th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 308 from Consciousness and cognition

Deficits of subliminal self-face processing in schizophrenia.

Most studies show that self-processing in schizophrenia is impaired at the supraliminal level. Schizophrenic patients generally lack the ability to prioritize the processing of self-related information, such as their own face. However, some evidence suggests that schizophrenic patients may retain intact subliminal processing abilities even though their conscious experiences are compromised. We conducted the first study exploring schizophrenic patients' subliminal self-face processing. Using a breaking conti...

Pre-experimental sleep effects on directed forgetting.

A directed forgetting (DF) paradigm was used to compare the remembering and forgetting of participants with good sleep quality to those with poor sleep quality and the presence of insomnia symptoms. This study implemented a point system in place of remember and forget instructions in a DF task with the goal of computing DF costs and benefits. Relations among memory, sleep, and working memory capacity (WMC) were also examined. DF benefits were observed in both groups, with negative costs found for participan...

Manipulating the temporal locus and content of mind-wandering.

The human brain has a tendency to drift into the realm of internally-generated thoughts that are unbound by space and time. The term mind-wandering (MW) is often used describe such thoughts when they are perceptually decoupled. Evidence suggests that exposure to forward and backward illusory motion skews the temporal orientation of MW thoughts to either the future or past respectively. However, little is known about the impact of this manipulation on other features of MW. Here, using a novel experimental pa...

Alterations of social attention in mental disorders: Phenomenology, scope, and future directions for research.

Mental disorders often involve changes in the way subjects attend to other people. However, the nature of these modifications and how they unfold in different pathologies are not sufficiently clear. This article addresses these issues from the perspective of phenomenological psychopathology. The primary goal of the article is to suggest a new way of assessing and distinguishing the alterations of social attention in subjects with mental disorders. The first part of the article characterizes the essential pr...

Applying an individual-differences lens to understanding human cognition.

A reply to "the unfolding argument": Beyond functionalism/behaviorism and towards a science of causal structure theories of consciousness.

Eastern observers cannot inhibit their gaze to eye and nose regions in face perception.

It has been found that Western observers cannot inhibit their gaze to the eye region, even if they are told to avoid doing so when they observe face stimuli because of the importance of the eye region. However, studies indicate that the nose region is more important for face processing among Eastern observers. We used the "don't look" paradigm with Eastern observers, in which participants were told to avoid fixating on a specific region (eye, nose, and mouth). The results extend previous findings as both th...

Distance is relative: Inattentional blindness critically depends on the breadth of the attentional focus.

Inattentional blindness - the phenomenon that we sometimes miss salient stimuli in our direct view when they appear unexpectedly and attention is focused on something else - is modulated by various parameters, including distance of the unexpected stimulus from the attentional focus. In two experiments, we expanded the existing literature on spatial factors influencing inattentional blindness as well as theories on the spatial distribution of attention. Noticing rates of unexpected objects were significantly...

My body until proven otherwise: Exploring the time course of the full body illusion.

Evidence from the Full Body Illusion (FBI) has shown that adults can embody full bodies which are not their own when they move synchronously with their own body or are viewed from a first-person perspective. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the time course of the illusion. Here, for the first time, we examined the effect of visuomotor synchrony (synchronous/asynchronous/no movement) on the FBI over time. Surprisingly, we found evidence of embodiment over a virtual body after five seconds i...

A gist orientation before retrieval impacts the objective content but not the subjective experience of episodic memory.

A gist retrieval-orientation decreases one's ability to remember objective details from past experiences. Here, we examined whether a gist retrieval-orientation manipulation can impact both the objective and subjective aspects of remembering. Young participants took part in two cued-recollection tasks in which they studied pictures associated with labels; at retrieval, from the labels, they evaluated the vividness of their memories of the corresponding pictures, and recalled picture details. Before retrieva...

Emotional face prediction in rejection sensitive individuals: Evidence from event-related potentials.

Human beings live in an uncertain world, but they continuously generate top-down predictions about emotional face information of other people around them. Although the prediction processing has repeatedly been investigated in the literature of prediction, little is known about the impact of rejection sensitive (RS) on individuals' emotional face prediction. To this end, high and low RS participants were asked to perform an identification task of emotional faces in which target faces were shown in either an ...

Truthiness, the illusory truth effect, and the role of need for cognition.

Ease of processing-cognitive fluency-is a central input in assessments of truth, but little is known about individual differences in susceptibility to fluency-based biases in truth assessment. Focusing on two paradigms-truthiness and the illusory truth effect-we consider the role of Need for Cognition (NFC), an individual difference variable capturing one's preference for elaborative thought. Across five experiments, we replicated basic truthiness and illusory truth effects. We found very little evidence th...

The reminiscence bump is blind to blindness: Evidence from sound- and odor-evoked autobiographical memory.

The reminiscence bump is the disproportionally high reporting of autobiographical memories from adolescence and early adulthood and is typically observed when memories are evoked by cues, such as words, pictures, and sounds. However, when odors are used the bump shifts to early childhood. Although these findings indicate that sensory modality affects the bump, the influence of the individual's sensory function on the reminiscence bumps is unknown. We examined the reminiscence bumps of sound- and odor-evoked...

The relationship between endowment and ownership effects in memory across cultures.

An object one owns is typically more highly valued than an equivalent object owned by another person. This endowment effect has been attributed to the aversion of loss of one's possessions (through selling), or the added value of an item due to self-association (through owning). To date, investigation of these mechanisms has been hampered by the between-subjects methodology traditionally employed to measure endowment. Over two experiments, we report a novel within-subjects method for measuring an endowment ...

Working memory can compare two visual items without accessing visual consciousness.

Recent studies argued that unconscious visual information could access the working memory, however, it is still unclear whether the central executive could be activated unconsciously. We investigated, using a delayed match-to-sample task, whether the central executive is an unconscious process. In the experiment of the present study, participants were asked to compare the locations of two given visual targets. Both targets (or one of the two targets, depending on the experimental condition) were masked by a...

Unconscious semantic priming from pictures under backward masking and continuous flash suppression.

It is debated whether the meaning of invisible pictures can be processed unconsciously. We tested whether pictures of animals or objects presented under backward masking or continuous flash suppression could prime the subsequent categorization of target words into animal or non-animal. In Experiment 1, the backward masking part failed to replicate the priming effect reported in two previous studies, despite sufficient statistical power (N = 59). Similarly, the continuous flash suppression part provided no...

Who wrote that? Automaticity and reduced sense of agency in individuals prone to dissociative absorption.

Dissociative absorption (DA) is a tendency to become completely immersed in a stimulus while neglecting to attend to one's surroundings. Theoretically, DA implies automatic functioning in areas that are outside the focus of attention. This study examined whether high absorbers indeed act more automatically, i.e., with decreased meta-consciousness for, and therefore poor memory of, their own actions, along with reduced sense of agency (SoA). High and low absorbers (N = 63) performed three DA-promoting task...

Neuronal correlates of full and partial visual conscious perception.

Stimuli may induce only partial consciousness-an intermediate between null and full consciousness-where the presence but not identity of an object can be reported. The differences in the neuronal basis of full and partial consciousness are poorly understood. We investigated if evoked and oscillatory activity could dissociate full from partial conscious perception. We recorded human cortical activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a visual perception task in which stimulus could be either partially...

Pupillometric decoding of high-level musical imagery.

Humans report imagining sound where no physical sound is present: we replay conversations, practice speeches, and "hear" music all within the confines of our minds. Research has identified neural substrates underlying auditory imagery; yet deciphering its explicit contents has been elusive. Here we present a novel pupillometric method for decoding what individuals hear "inside their heads". Independent of light, pupils dilate and constrict in response to noradrenergic activity. Hence, stimuli evoking unique...

Eye-closure & the retrieval of item-specific information in recognition memory.

Two experiments investigated the effect of eye-closure on visual and auditory memory under conditions based on the retrieval of item-specific information. Experiment 1 investigated visual recognition memory for studied, perceptually similar and unrelated items. It was found that intermittent eye-closure increased memory for studied items and decreased memory for related items. This finding was reflected by enhanced item-specific and reduced gist memory. Experiment 2 used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) p...

Are errors detected before they occur? Early error sensations revealed by metacognitive judgments on the timing of error awareness.

Errors in choice tasks are not only detected fast and reliably, participants often report that they knew that an error occurred already before a response was produced. These early error sensations stand in contrast with evidence suggesting that the earliest neural correlates of error awareness emerge around 300 ms after erroneous responses. The present study aimed to investigate whether anecdotal evidence for early error sensations can be corroborated in a controlled study in which participants provide met...

Getting closer: Synchronous interpersonal multisensory stimulation increases closeness and attraction toward an opposite-sex other in female participants.

Experiencing tactile facial stimulation while seeing synchronous stimulations delivered to another's face induces enfacement, i.e. the subjective experience of ownership over the other's face. The synchronous Interpersonal Multisensory Stimulation (IMS) procedure leading to enfacement induces changes beyond the bodily sense of self, such as increased feeling of closeness between self and other. However, evidence for such an influence of IMS on higher-level self-other representations remains limited. Moreove...

Parts of me: Identity-relevance moderates self-prioritization.

Recent research has revealed a pervasive bias for self-relevant information during decision-making, a phenomenon termed the self-prioritization effect. Focusing almost exclusively on between-target (e.g., self vs. friend) differences in task performance, however, this work has overlooked the influence stimulus factors potentially exert during decisional processing. Accordingly, based on pertinent social-psychological theorizing (i.e., Identity-Based Motivation Theory), here we explored the possibility that ...

The interplay of predictive and postdictive components of experienced selfhood.

Objects that we affect by our body movements can be experienced as being controlled by (agency) and belonging to the own body (ownership). Such impressions of minimal selfhood arise when objects move as predicted prior to the action (predictive component). But they can also arise when otherwise unpredictable object movements turn out to be consistent with (e.g. spatially compatible to) preceding actions (postdictive component). Here we studied how the impact of postdictive components of inferred minimal sel...

Monitoring line length reproduction errors.

Previous work revealed that humans can keep track of the direction and degree of errors in their temporal and numerical reproductions/estimations. Given the behavioral and psychophysical commonalities to various magnitudes and the implication of an overlapping neuroanatomical locus for their representation, we hypothesized that participants would capture the direction of errors and confidence ratings would track the magnitude of errors in line-length reproductions. In two experiments, participants reproduce...


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