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PubMed Journal Database | Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior RSS

22:50 EST 16th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 483 from Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior

Atypical lateralization in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders: What is the role of stress?

Hemispheric asymmetries are a major organizational principle of the human brain. In different neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, depression, dyslexia and posttraumatic stress disorder, functional and/or structural hemispheric asymmetries are altered compared to healthy controls. The question, why these disorders all share the common characteristic of altered hemispheric asymmetries despite vastly different etiologies and symptoms remains one of the u...

Spatial updating of allocentric landmark information in real-time and memory-guided reaching.

The 2-streams model of vision suggests that egocentric and allocentric reference frames are utilized by the dorsal and the ventral stream for real-time and memory-guided movements, respectively. Recent studies argue against such a strict functional distinction and suggest that real-time and memory-guided movements recruit the same spatial maps. In this study we focus on allocentric spatial coding and updating of targets by using landmark information in real-time and memory-guided reaching. We presented part...

Mechanisms of smooth pursuit eye movements in schizotypy.

Several studies suggest that highly schizotypal individuals display a deficit in smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), which are considered an important biomarker of schizophrenia. In schizophrenia, abnormal SPEM is thought to be driven by impairments in motion perception. In schizotypy, the processes underlying reduced SPEM performance have not been examined so far, and there are no studies on motion perception deficits in schizotypy. Thus, in this registered report, we aimed to investigate whether motion p...

Is laterality adaptive? Pitfalls in disentangling the laterality-performance relationship.

Unlike non-human animal studies that have progressively demonstrated the advantages of being asymmetrical at an individual, group and population level, human studies show a quite inconsistent picture. Specifically, it is hardly clear if and how the strength of lateralization that an individual is equipped with relates to their cognitive performance. While some of these inconsistencies can be attributed to procedural and conceptual differences, the issue is aggravated by the fact that the intrinsic mathemati...

Raised visual contrast thresholds with intact attention and metacognition in functional motor disorder.

Functional motor disorders (FMDs) are distinguished by signs that lack congruence with recognised patterns of organic disease and show inconsistency over time. Their pathophysiology is poorly understood, but there is evidence that irregularities in perceptual and cognitive processing lie at the heart of these conditions. Here, we draw on a predictive coding account of functional neurological disorders to study perceptual decision-making in three groups: 20 patients with FMDs (14 with functional movements an...

Combined frequency-tagging EEG and eye tracking reveal reduced social bias in boys with autism spectrum disorder.

Developmental accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) state that infants and children with ASD are spontaneously less attracted by and less proficient in processing social stimuli such as faces. This is hypothesized to partly underlie social communication difficulties in ASD. While in some studies a reduced preference for social stimuli has been shown in individuals with ASD, effect sizes are moderate and vary across studies, stimuli, and designs. Eye tracking, often the methodology of choice to study so...

Efficacy and predictors of recovery of function after eye movement training in 296 hemianopic patients.

Compensatory approaches to rehabilitation of vision loss as a result of brain injury are aimed at improving the efficacy of eye movements, enabling patients to bring the otherwise unseen stimuli into their sighted field. Eye movement training has shown promise in a large number of studies in small clinical populations. Nevertheless, there remain two problems; standardisation and wide accessibility. NeuroEyeCoach™ (NEC) has been developed to address both. The therapy is based on the visual search approach ...

Executive functions in schizophrenia aging: Differential effects of age within specific executive functions.

There are common cognitive and brain abnormalities in schizophrenia and healthy aging which may cumulate in schizophrenia aging. However, the course of executive deficits in late-life schizophrenia is still controversial as it remains unclear whether schizophrenia patients show accelerated aging. The use of specific models of executive functions might help to shed new lights on this issue. The aim of this study was then to determine how each of the four specific executive functions (shifting, updating, inh...

Short- and long-term forms of neural adaptation: An ERP investigation of dynamic motion aftereffects.

Adaptation is essential to interact with a dynamic and changing environment, and can be observed on different timescales. Previous studies on a motion paradigm called dynamic motion aftereffect (dMAE) showed that neural adaptation can establish even in very short timescales. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such rapid form of neural plasticity is still debated. In the present study, short- and long-term forms of neural plasticity were investigated using dynamic motion aftereffect combined with EEG ...

Neural correlates and role of medication in reactive motor impulsivity in Tourette disorder.

Abnormality of inhibitory control is considered to be a potential cognitive marker of tics in Tourette disorder (TD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and impulse control disorders. The results of the studies on inhibitory control in TD showed discrepant results. The aim of the present study was to assess reactive inhibitory control in adult TD patients with and without antipsychotic medication, and under emotional stimulation (visual images with positive, neutral and negative content). We a...

Task-dependent changes in functional connectivity during the observation of social and non-social touch interaction.

Previous studies have identified a collection of brain areas that show neural selectivity for the distinction between human-to-human and human-to-object interactions, including regions implicated in sensory and social processing. It remains largely unknown, however, how the functional communication between these areas changes with the type of interaction. Combining a generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis and independent component analysis (ICA), the current study sought to identify the...

Adults with high functioning autism display idiosyncratic behavioral patterns, neural representations and connectivity of the 'Voice Area' while judging the appropriateness of emotional vocal reactions.

Understanding others in everyday situations requires multiple types of information processing (visual, auditory, higher order…) which implicates the use of multiple neural circuits of the human brain. Here, using a multisensory paradigm we investigate one aspect of social understanding less explored in the literature: instead of focusing on the capacity to infer what a specific person is thinking, we explore here how people with high functioning autism (HFA) and matched controls with typical development (...

Alterations to dual stream connectivity predicts response to aphasia therapy following stroke.

Predicting aphasia recovery is difficult due to a high variability in treatment response. Detailed measures of treatment response are compounded by a dearth of information that examine brain connections that contribute to clinical improvement. In this study we measure alterations to cortical connectivity pathways during a therapy paradigm to detect whether key brain connections that contribute to language recovery can be detected prior to therapy.

People represent mental states in terms of rationality, social impact, and valence: Validating the 3d Mind Model.

Humans can experience a wide variety of different thoughts and feelings in the course of everyday life. To successfully navigate the social world, people need to perceive, understand, and predict others' mental states. Previous research suggests that people use three dimensions to represent mental states: rationality, social impact, and valence. This 3d Mind Model allows people to efficiently "see" the state of another person's mind by considering whether that state is rational or emotional, more or less so...

Mapping psycholinguistic features to the neuropsychological and lesion profiles in aphasia.

Naming and word retrieval deficits are two of the most persistent symptoms in chronic post-stroke aphasia. Naming success or failure on specific words can sometimes be predicted by the psycholinguistic properties of the word. Despite a wealth of literature investigating the influence of psycholinguistic properties in neuro-typical and clinical language processing, the underlying structure of these properties and their relation to the fundamental language components and neural correlates are unexplored. In t...

Response patterns in the developing social brain are organized by social and emotion features and disrupted in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

Adults and children recruit a specific network of brain regions when engaged in "Theory of Mind" (ToM) reasoning. Recently, fMRI studies of adults have used multivariate analyses to provide a deeper characterization of responses in these regions. These analyses characterize representational distinctions within the social domain, rather than comparing responses across preferred (social) and non-preferred stimuli. Here, we conducted opportunistic multivariate analyses in two previously collected datasets (Exp...

Diffusion tensor imaging evidence of corticospinal pathway involvement in frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

Motor neuron dysfunctions (MNDys) in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) have been consistently reported. Clinical and neurophysiological findings proved a variable range of pathological changes, also affecting the corticospinal tract (CST). This study aims to assess white-matter microstructural alterations in a sample of patients with FTLD, and to evaluate the relationship with MNDys. Fifty-four FTLD patients (21 bvFTD, 16 PPA, 17 CBS) and 36 healthy controls participated in a Diffusion Tensor Imaging...

Children with primary complex motor stereotypies show impaired reactive but not proactive inhibition.

Typically, the inability to control urges tends to be ascribed to a lack of inhibitory control. Primary complex motor stereotypes (p-CMS), occurring in children with an otherwise typical development, represent a remarkable example of involuntary, complex, repetitive and apparently purposeless movements. However, it has never been tested whether the core of the pathophysiology of p-CMS lies in a deficit of inhibitory control. To fill this gap, we assessed whether children with p-CMS exhibit an impairment of ...

Unified tactile detection and localisation in split-brain patients.

In 'split-brain' patients, the corpus callosum has been surgically severed to alleviate medically intractable, severe epilepsy. The classic claim is that after removal of the corpus callosum an object presented in the right visual field will be identified correctly verbally and with the right hand but not with the left hand. When the object is presented in the left visual field the patient verbally states that he saw nothing but nevertheless identifies it accurately with the left hand. This interaction sugg...

Making sense of blindsense: A commentary on Garric et al., 2019.

Genetic effects on planum temporale asymmetry and their limited relevance to neurodevelopmental disorders, intelligence or educational attainment.

Previous studies have suggested that altered asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT) is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including dyslexia, schizophrenia, and autism. Shared genetic factors have been suggested to link PT asymmetry to these disorders. In a dataset of unrelated subjects from the general population (UK Biobank, N = 18,057), we found that PT volume asymmetry had a significant heritability of roughly 14%. In genome-wide association analysis, two loci were significantly associated ...

Functional connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus in humans.

Parcellation of the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus based on their functional connectivity with the whole brain in resting state fMRI with 654 participants was performed to investigate how these regions with different functions in reward, emotion and their disorders are functionally connected to each other and to the whole brain. The human medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the right and ...

How alliteration enhances conceptual-attentional interactions in reading.

In linguistics, the relationship between phonological word form and meaning is mostly considered arbitrary. Why, then, do literary authors traditionally craft sound relationships between words? We set out to characterise how dynamic interactions between word form and meaning may account for this literary practice. Here, we show that alliteration influences both meaning integration and attentional engagement during reading. We presented participants with adjective-noun phrases, having manipulated semantic re...

Neurophysiological markers discriminate different forms of motor imagery during action observation.

The dual-action simulation hypothesis proposes that both an observed and an imagined action can be represented simultaneously in the observer's brain. These two sensorimotor streams would either merge or compete depending on their relative suitability for action planning. To test this hypothesis, three forms of combined action observation and motor imagery (AO + MI) instructions were used in this repeated-measures experiment. Participants observed index finger abduction-adduction movements while imagining...

The role of the fornix in human navigational learning.

Experiments on rodents have demonstrated that transecting the white matter fibre pathway linking the hippocampus with an array of cortical and subcortical structures - the fornix - impairs flexible navigational learning in the Morris Water Maze (MWM), as well as similar spatial learning tasks. While diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies in humans have linked inter-individual differences in fornix microstructure to episodic memory abilities, its role in human spatial learning is currently unkno...


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