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PubMed Journal Database | Current protein & peptide science RSS

04:51 EDT 6th April 2020 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 30 from Current protein & peptide science

Anti-amyloid aggregating gold nanoparticles: Can they really be translated from bench to bedside for Alzheimer's disease treatment?

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of amyloid-β protein aggregates and an appropriate treatment strategy is urgently needed, as the number of diagnosed cases continues to increase. The management of AD and of the other brain-associated diseases are limited by the blood brain barrier and its selective control of drug passage. In fact, most of the promising drugs have restricted curative effects on AD owing to their lower bioavailability. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have emerged as attrac...

Detecting protein-protein interaction based on protein fragment complementation assay.

Proteins are the most critical executive molecules by responding to the instructions stored in the genetic materials in any form of life. More frequently, proteins do their jobs by acting as a roleplayer that interacts with other protein(s), which is more evident when the function of a protein is examined in the real context of a cell. Identifying the interactions between (or amongst) proteins is very crucial for the biochemistry investigation of an individual protein and for the attempts aiming to draw a h...

Overview of Gene Regulatory Network Inference Based on Differential Equation Models.

Reconstruction of gene regulatory networks (GRN) plays an important role in understanding the complexity, functionality and pathways of biological systems, which could support the design of new drugs for diseases. Because differential equation models are flexible and strong, these models have been utilized to identify biochemical reactions and gene regulatory networks. This paper investigates the differential equation models for reverse engineering gene regulatory networks. We introduce three kinds of diffe...

2'-Deoxyribose mediated glycation leads to alterations in BSA structure via generation of carbonyl species.

The non-enzymatic glycosylation is a very common phenomenon in the physiological conditions which is mediated by distinct chemical entities containing reactive carbonyl species (RCS) and participate in the modification of various macromolecules particularly proteins. Till date, various carbonyl species, i.e., glucose, fructose, D-ribose and methylglyoxal have been used frequently to assess the in-vitro non-enzymatic glycosylation. Similarly, 2'-Deoxyribose is one of the most abundant reducing sugar of the l...

Antimicrobial Peptides From Lycosidae (Sundevall, 1833) Spiders.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been found in all organism taxa and may play an essential role as a host defense system. AMPs are organized in various conformations, such as linear peptides, disulfide bond-linked peptides, backbone-linked peptides and circular peptides. AMPs apparently act primarily on the plasma membrane, although an increasing number of works have shown that they may also target various intracellular sites. Spider venoms are rich sources of biomolecules that show several activities, in...

Virulence factors in the entomopathogen genus Metarhizium.

The fungal genus Metarhizium has been used as an entomopathogen worldwide for approximately 140 years, and its mechanism of infection and its virulence factors have been studied. The present review is a compilation of virulence factors described in the literature to date and their participation in specific stages of the infection process.

Butyrylcholinesterase: A Multifaceted Pharmacological Target and Tool.

Butyrylcholinesterase is a serine hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters in the body. Unlike its sister enzyme acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase has a broad substrate scope and lower acetylcholine catalytic efficiency. The difference in tissue distribution and inhibitor sensitivity also points to its involvement external to cholinergic neurotransmission. Initial studies on butyrylcholinesterase showed that the inhibition of the enzyme led to the increment of brain acetylcholine levels. ...

Functional Significance of Endocrine-Immune Interactions in Health and Disease.

Hormones are known to influence various body systems that include skeletal, cardiac, digestive, excretory and immune systems. Emerging investigations suggest the key role played by secretions of endocrine glands in immune cell differentiation, proliferation, activation and memory attributes of the immune system. The link between steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids and inflammation is widely known. However, the role of peptide hormones and amino acid derivatives such as growth and thyroid hormones, prol...

Biomolecules as Potential Drugs.

Dicarbonyls Generation, Toxicities, Detoxifications and Potential roles in Diabetes Complications.

It has been well established that advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have a strong correlation with diabetes and its secondary complications. Moreover, dicarbonyls especially methylglyoxal (MG) and glyoxal, accelerate AGEs formation and hence have potential roles in the pathogenesis of diabetes. They can also induce oxidative stress and concomitantly decrease the efficiency of antioxidant enzymes. Increased proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) are secreted by monocyte...

Biomedical and Pharmaceutical-Related Applications of Laccase.

Oxidation of a vast range of phenolic and non-phenolic substrates has been catalyzed by laccases. Given wide range of substrates, laccases can be applied in different biotechnological applications. The present review was conducted to provide a broad context in pharmaceutical- and biomedical-related applications of laccases for academic and industrial researchers. First, an overview on biological roles of laccases was presented. Furthermore, laccase-mediated strategies for imparting antimicrobial and antioxi...

Molecular interactions during Borrelia burgdorferi migration from the vector to the mammalian nervous system.

In this review we systematically describe the different molecular interactions between the bacteria spirochete of Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi, the tick vector of the spirochete and the mammal host, that are essential in the migration of the spirochete form the tick to the tick, to mammal skin bite site, and finally to the nervous system, where the pathogen establishes LNB.

Structural Diversity in Calmodulin - Peptide Interactions.

Calmodulin (CaM) is a highly conserved eukaryotic Ca2+ sensor protein that is able to bind a large variety of target sequences without a defined consensus sequence. The recognition of this diverse target set allows CaM to take part in the regulation of several vital cell functions. To fully understand the structural basis of the regulation functions of CaM, the investigation of complexes of CaM and its targets is essential. In this minireview we give an outline of the different types of CaM - peptide com- p...

Protein Aggregation in a Nutshell: The Splendid Molecular Architecture of the Dreaded Amyloid Fibrils.

The recent high-resolution structures of amyloid fibrils show that the organization of peptide segments into amyloid aggregate architecture is a general process, though the morphology is more complex and intricate than suspected previously. The amyloid fibrils are often cytotoxic, accumulating as intracellular inclusions or extracellular plaques and have the ability to interfere with cellular physiology causing various cellular malfunctions. At the same time, the highly ordered amyloid structures also prese...

Achieving Functionality Through Modular Build-Up: Structure and Size Selection of Serine Oligopeptidases.

Enzymes of the prolyl oligopeptidase family (S9 family) recognize their substrates not only by the specificity motif to be cleaved but also by size - they hydrolyze oligopeptides smaller than 30 amino acids. They belong to the serine-protease family, but differ from classical serine-proteases in size (80 kDa), structure (two domains) and regulation system (size selection of substrates). This group of enzymes is an important target for drug design as they are linked to amnesia, schizophrenia, type 2 diabetes...

Activity of N-phenylpiperazine derivatives against bacterial and fungal pathogens.

As the bacterial resistance to antibacterial chemotherapeutics is one of the greatest problems in modern medicine, efforts are made to develop new antimicrobial drugs. Compounds with a piperazine ring have proved to be promising agents against various pathogens.

A journey through the cytoskeleton with protein kinase CK2.

Substrate pleiotropicity, a very acidic phosphorylation consensus sequence, and an apparent uncontrolled activity, are the main features of CK2, a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is required for a plethora of cell functions. Not surprisingly, CK2 appears to affect cytoskeletal structures and correlated functions such as cell shape, mechanical integrity, cell movement and division. This review outlines our current knowledge of how CK2 regulates cytoskeletal structures, and discusses involved pathways and molecul...

Key Peptides and Proteins in Alzheimer's Disease.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a form of progressive dementia involving cognitive impairment, loss of learning and memory. Different proteins (such as amyloid precursor protein (APP), β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau protein) play a key role in the initiation and progression of AD. We review the role of the most important proteins and peptides in AD pathogenesis. The structure, biosynthesis and physiological role of APP are shortly summarized. The details of trafficking and processing of APP to Aβ, the cytosolic intr...

Potential Influence of Cyclo(His-Pro) on Proteostasis: Impact on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Protein function is dependent on assumption of the correct three-dimensional structure, achieved through the folding process. As a central element in ensuring cellular homeostasis, proteostasis i.e. the control of correct protein folding, trafficking and degradation, is a highly regulated process ensured by three integrated molecular pathways: i) the unfolded protein response (UPR) which is activated by the engulfment of misfolded proteins and results in protein re-folding through the expression of chaperon...

Polymerase delta in eukaryotes: How is it transiently exchanged with specialized DNA polymerases during translesion DNA synthesis?

Precise duplication of the human genome is constantly threatened by a variety of genotoxic insults. During S-phase, those damaged template bases could be overcome by DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways that bypass such obstacles instead of repairing them, allowing replicative machinery to resume beyond the offending lesions. Two distinct strategies of DDT, template switching and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), are employed in eukaryotes. In the former process, the newly synthesized sister chromatid is util...

Editorial: Identifying Drug-target Interactions Based on Heterogeneous Biological Data - PART 1.

Regulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Superfamily.

The ability to differentiate into cells of different lineage, such as muscle, bone, cartilage and fat, is the chief value of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can be used with the final aim to regenerate damaged tissue. Due to potential use, as well as importance in tissue development, a number of questions have been raised regarding the molecular mechanisms of MSC differentiation. As one of the crucial mediators in organism development, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily directs M...

Central Role of Transforming Ggrowth Factor Type Beta 1 in Skeletal Muscle Dysfunctions: an Update on Therapeutic strategies.

Among the soluble factors that regulate skeletal muscle function, Transforming Growth Factor type Beta 1 (TGF-b1) is one of the most studied. This factor inhibits myogenesis and regeneration by regulating the activity and function of satellite cells (SCs). Indeed, TGF-b has a central role in muscle pathologies in which there is development of fibrosis and/or atrophy of skeletal muscle. Thus, in this review we present the critical and recent antecedents regarding the mechanisms and cellular targets involved ...

A Focus on the Beneficial Effects of Alpha Synuclein and a Re-appraisal of Synucleinopathies.

Alpha synuclein (α-syn) belongs to a class of proteins which are commonly considered to play a detrimental role in neuronal survival. This assumption is based on the occurrence of a severe neuronal degeneration in patients carrying a multiplication of the α-syn gene (SNCA) and in a variety of experimental models, where overexpression of α-syn leads to cell death and neurological impairment. In these conditions, a higher amount of normally structured α-syn produces a damage, which is even worse compared ...

Two Elution Mechanisms of MEP Chromatography.

MEP (mercapto-ethyl-pyridine) HyperCel is one of the hydrophobic charge induction chromatography (HCIC) resins. Under normal operation, proteins are bound to the MEP resin at neutral pH, at which MEP is not charged, mostly via hydrophobic interaction. MEP has a pyridine group, whose pK is 4.8, and hence is positively charged at acidic pH range. Based on the binding mechanism (i.e., hydrophobic interaction) and the induced positive charge at acidic pH, there may be two ways to elute the bound proteins. One w...


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