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The stem cell exchange during pregnancy is thought to remain chimeras for life. Few studies recently revealed that maternal transfer of viable stem cells to the offspring continues even after birth during breastfeeding. Some of these stem cells are likely to integrate into different organs (brain, blood, kidneys, and pancreas), including neurons and insulin-producing cells in the pancreas to become functional cells. This finding opens a new avenue for research on therapeutic uses of breast milk-derived stem...
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with multilineage differentiation potential. They can be collected from bone marrow, fat, amniotic fluid, and teeth. Stem cell-based therapies have been widely used to treat multiple diseases, such as cardiac disease, and hematological disorders. The cells may also be beneficial for controlling the disease course and promoting tissue regeneration in oral and maxillofacial diseases. Oral-derived gingival mesenchymal stem cells are easy to access. And the donor sites heal...
Excessive bone resorption has been recognized as a major role in the development of bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Paget's disease of bone, and cancer metastasis to bone. Phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) family members PLCγ1 and PLCγ2 are critical regulators of signaling pathways downstream of growth factor receptors, integrins, and immune complexes and play a crucial role in the osteoclastogenesis. Ca2+ signaling has been recognized as an essential pathway to the differentiati...
Defects in articular cartilage injury and the chronic osteoarthritis are very widespread and common, and the ability of injured cartilage to repair itself is limited. Stem cell-based cartilage tissue engineering provides a promising therapeutic option for articular cartilage damage. However, the application of the technique is limited by the number, source, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocytes is available for cartilage tissue engineering, an...
The regenerative medicine is a growing branch of medicine aimed to treat damaged or lost tissues, to promote tissue formation and to restore both aesthetics and function. In the last years, several scientific articles have been focused on the regenerative procedures aimed to increase the survival rate of compromised teeth; the most effective approaches have been based on molecular-based and on cellular-based protocols; however, to date, both these techniques have not been carefully analysed and discussed, t...
Aging is characterized by time-dependent functional decline, which results in the reduced ability to cope with physiological challenges. The aging process can be affected by genetic factors, environment factors, epigenetic factors, and several stochastic factors. Epigenetic marker alteration during aging has been widely monitored and studied recently, since these epigenetic alterations are theoretically reversible. Histone post-translational modifications have been found to play a crucial role in epigenetic...