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Matrix metalloproteinases 13 (MMP13) is a potent endopeptidase that regulate cell growth, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. However, its role in fin regeneration remains unclear.
Conditional loss-of-function studies are widely conducted using the Cre/Loxp system because this helps circumvent embryonic or neonatal lethality problems. However, Cre strains specific to the inner ear are lacking, and thus lethality frequently occurs even in conditional knockout studies.
Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common human birth defects, but the underlying etiology is poorly understood. The A/WySn mouse is a spontaneously occurring model of multi-genic clefting in which 20-30% of individuals develop an orofacial cleft. Recent work has shown altered methylation at a specific retrotransposon insertion downstream of the Wnt9b locus in clefting animals, which results in decreased Wnt9b expression.
We aimed to analyze the morphogenesis of all ribs from 1st to 12th rib pairs plus vertebrae to compare their differences and features according to the position along the cranial caudal axis during the human embryonic period.
lncRNAs, genes transcribed but not translated, longer than 200 nucleotides, are classified as a separate class of non-protein coding genes. Since their discovery, largely from RNAseq data, a number of pioneer studies has begun to unravel its myriad functions, centered on gene expression regulation, suggesting developmental and evolutionary conservation. Since they do not code for proteins and have no open reading frames, their functional constraints likely differ from that of protein coding genes, or of gen...
Atrioventricular valve development relies upon the precisely defined dimensions of the atrioventricular canal (AVC). Current models suggest that Wnt signaling plays an important role atop a pathway that promotes AVC development. The factors that confine AVC differentiation to the appropriate location, however, are less well understood.
The domestication of the fowl resulted in a large diversity of integumental structures in chicken breeds. Several integumental traits have been investigated from a developmental genetics perspective. However, their distribution among breeds and their developmental morphology remain unexplored. We constructed a discrete trait-breed matrix and conducted a disparity analysis to investigate the variation of these structures in chicken breeds; 20 integumental traits of 72 chicken breeds and the red junglefowl we...
Dilp8-mediated inhibition of ecdysone synthesis and pupation in holometabolous insects maintains developmental homeostasis through stringent control of timing and strength of moulting signals. We examined reasons for normal pupation but early pupal death observed in certain cases.
Neural stem cells (NSC) have been extensively used as a tool to investigate the mechanisms responsible for neural repair, and they have been also considered as the source for a series of promising replacement therapies in various neurodegenerative diseases. However, their use is limited by their relative rarity and anatomical localization, and also because the methods for isolation and characterization are usually time consuming and have some technical limitations.
The basic ground plan of vertebrate hindbrain is established through a process of segmentation, which generates 8 transient lineage-restricted cellular compartments, called rhombomeres (r). The segments adopt distinct individual identities in response to axial patterning signals. It is unclear whether signaling between rhombomeres plays a conserved role in regulating segmental patterning during hindbrain development.
Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in organogenesis as a paracrine signal through transcriptional regulation of an increasing number of known downstream target genes, regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. During the development of the inner ear, RA directly governs the morphogenesis and specification processes mainly by means of RA-synthesizing retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) enzymes. Interestingly, CYP1B1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, is able to mediate the oxidative metabolisms also ...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction, repetitive or restrictive behaviors, and problems with speech. According to a recent report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, one in 68 children in the US is diagnosed with ASDs. Although ASD-related diagnostics and the knowledge of ASD-associated genetic abnormalities have improved in recent years, our understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways disru...
Circulating plasma ceramides, a class of bioactive sphingolipids, are elevated in metabolic disorders, including obesity. Infants of women with these disorders are at 2-3-fold greater risk for developing a neural tube defect (NTD). This study aimed to test the effects of embryonic exposure to C2-ceramides (C2) during neural tube closure. Preliminary data shows an increase in NTDs in chick embryos after C2 exposure, and addresses potential mechanisms.
During zebrafish epiboly, the embryonic cell mass, or blastoderm, spreads to enclose the yolk cell. The blastoderm consists of an outer epithelial sheet, the enveloping layer (EVL), and underlying deep cells. Studies have provided insights into the mechanisms of EVL and deep cell epiboly, but little is known about the interactions between the two cell layers and what role they may play during epiboly.
Skeletal muscle in the trunk derives from the somites, paired segments of paraxial mesoderm. Whereas axial musculature develops within the somite, appendicular muscle develops following migration of muscle precursors into lateral plate mesoderm. The development of muscles bridging axial and appendicular systems appears mixed.
Urodele amphibians are capable of regenerating their organs after severe damage. During such regeneration, participating cells are given differentiation instructions by the surrounding cells. Limb regeneration has been investigated as a representative phenomenon of organ regeneration. Cells known as blastema cells are induced after limb amputation. In this process, dermal fibroblasts are dedifferentiated and become undifferentiated similar to limb bud cells. Just like limb bud cells, the induced blastema ce...
Abnormalities in maternal folate and carbohydrate metabolism have both been shown to induce neural tube defects (NTDs) in humans and animal models. Nevertheless, how these two factors might interact in the development of NTDs remains unclear.
Polydactyly is a phenotypically and genetically highly heterogeneous limb malformation with preaxial, postaxial and central subtypes. The aim of this study was to identify genetically pathogenic factor in a Chinese nonsyndromic polydactyly family.
The timing of developmental events is tightly regulated along a time axis for normal development. Although the RNA-binding protein Lin28a plays a crucial role in the regulation of developmental timing in C. elegans, how the timing of Lin28a expression affects the rate and/or duration of developmental events during mammalian development remains to be addressed.
Developmental processes, including neuronal differentiation, require precise regulation of transcription. The RE-1 silencing transcription factor (Rest), is often called a "master neuronal regulator" due to its large number of neural-specific targets. Rest recruits CoRest (Rcor) and Sin3 co-repressor complexes to gene regulatory sequences. CoRest not only associates with Rest, but with other transcription regulators. In this study, we generated zebrafish rcor1 mutants using transcription activator- like eff...
The vertebrate spinal cord is organized across three developmental axes, anterior-posterior (AP), dorsal-ventral (DV), and medial-lateral (ML). Patterning of these axes is regulated by canonical intercellular signaling pathways: the AP axis by Wnt, fibroblast growth factor, and retinoic acid (RA), the DV axis by Hedgehog, Tgfβ, and Wnt, and the ML axis where proliferation is controlled by Notch. Developmental time plays an important role in which signal does what and when. Patterning across the three axes ...
Convergent phenotypic evolution has been widely documented across timescales, from populations, to species, to major lineages. The extent to which convergent phenotypes arise from convergent genetic and developmental mechanisms remains an open question, although studies to-date reveal examples of both similar and different underlying mechanisms. This variation likely relates to a range of factors, including the genetic architecture of the trait and selective filtering of mutations over time. Here we focus o...
Subterranean mammals show a suite of musculoskeletal adaptations that enables efficient digging. However, little is known about their development. We assessed ontogenetic changes in functionally relevant skeletal traits, and ossification patterns (periosteal and endochondral bone modules) in a truly subterranean scratch-digging rodent, Bathyergus. We studied 52 individuals (202 long bones) from a wild population by using a multiscale approach involving internal and external morphology.
Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis have long been used to drive discovery in developmental, cell, and molecular biology. These dual frog species boast experimental strengths for embryology including large egg sizes that develop externally, well-defined fate maps, and cell-intrinsic sources of nutrients that allow explanted tissues to grow in culture. Development of the Xenopus cell extract system has been used to study cell cycle and DNA replication. Xenopus tadpole tail and limb regeneration have provid...
Differences in postembryonic developmental trajectories can profoundly alter adult phenotypes and life histories. Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates metamorphosis in many vertebrate taxa with multiphasic ecologies, and alterations to TH metabolism underlie notable cases of paedomorphosis in amphibians. We tested the requirement for TH in multiple postembryonic developmental processes in zebrafish, which has a monophasic ecology, and asked if TH production was compromised in paedomorphic Danionella.