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PubMed Journal Database | Developmental psychobiology RSS

16:32 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 64 from Developmental psychobiology

Microbiota of newborn meconium is associated with maternal anxiety experienced during pregnancy.

Little is known about whether a mother's psychological state during pregnancy influences her offspring's microbiome. This study examined whether maternal anxiety, depression, and stress during pregnancy is associated with the diversity of meconium microbiome, the first internal discharge, in 75 newborns from an existing birth cohort study. The meconium microbiome was profiled using multibarcode16S rRNA sequencing at V3-V4 hypervariable region followed by taxonomic assignment to the green gene 16S references...

Cognitive-affective strategies and cortisol stress reactivity in children and adolescents: Normative development and effects of early life stress.

This study examined cognitive-affective strategies as predictors of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to a social-evaluative stressor in adolescence as compared to late childhood as a function of early life experiences. Participants included 159 children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15-16 years) divided into two groups based on early care experiences: non-adopted youth raised in their birth families (n = 81) and post-institutionalized youth internationally adopted from orphanage care ...

Automated sensing of daily activity: A new lens into development.

Rapidly maturing technologies for sensing and activity recognition can provide unprecedented access to the complex structure daily activity and interaction, promising new insight into the mechanisms by which experience shapes developmental outcomes. Motion data, autonomic activity, and "snippets" of audio and video recordings can be conveniently logged by wearable sensors (Lazer et al., 2009). Machine learning algorithms can process these signals into meaningful markers, from child and parent behavior to ou...

Fathering across contexts: The moderating role of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in predicting toddler emotion regulation.

Caregivers play an integral role in promoting children's emotion regulation, while children's individual physiology affects how they respond to the caregiving environment. Relatively little is known about how fathering influences toddler emotion regulation, particularly within African American and low-income communities, where risk related to the development of emotion regulation is higher. This study investigated relations among fathering, toddler parasympathetic regulation, and toddler emotion regulation ...

Parents' experiences of childhood abuse and neglect are differentially associated with behavioral and autonomic responses to their offspring.

Although childhood maltreatment has been shown to compromise adaptive parental behavior, little is known what happens in terms of physiological regulation when parents with a history of childhood maltreatment interact with their offspring. Using a sample of 229 parents (131 women), the present study examined whether childhood maltreatment experiences are associated with parents' behavioral and autonomic responses while resolving conflict with their offspring. Self-reported experienced child maltreatment was...

Is adolescence the missing developmental link in Microbiome-Gut-Brain axis communication?

Gut microbial research has recently opened new frontiers in neuroscience and potentiated novel therapies for mental health problems (Mayer, et al., 2014). Much of our understanding of the gut microbiome's role in brain function and behavior, however, has been largely derived from research on nonhuman animals. Even less is known about how the development of the gut microbiome influences critical periods of neural and behavioral development, particularly adolescence. In this review, we first discuss why the ...

Anxiety and exploratory behavior in the African striped mouse, Rhabdomys, taxa are partially modified by the physical rearing environment.

The environment may modulate genetic influences on behavioral expression. We investigated whether the physical rearing environment modulates anxiety and exploratory behavior in four populations, representing three species, of the striped mouse Rhabdomys. One population originated from an arid, open habitat and the others from grassy, covered habitats, and two species occurred in sympatry. We raised captive individuals of all populations in treatments that simulated cover or no cover for two generations and ...

Negative parenting modulates the association between mother's DNA methylation profiles and adult offspring depression.

This study aimed to examine whether the relationship between mothers' DNA methylation profiles and offspring's depression is modulated by negative parenting. The participants were 35 African-American mother-offspring dyads. Young adult offspring (19 females; age = 17-29.5 years) were assessed on depressive symptoms, and mothers (36-51 years) were assessed on negative parenting. Methyl-binding domain (MBD) sequencing was used to assay genome-wide DNA methylation in peripheral T lymphocytes. Controlling for...

Cortisol secretion moderates the association between mother-infant attachment at 17 months and child behavior at age 5 years.

This study examined infant cortisol secretion as a moderator of the association between mother-infant attachment security at age 17 months and child behavior at age 5 years. A longitudinal community sample of 96 mother-child dyads participated in the strange situation procedure (SSP) at age 17 months. Cortisol was collected at baseline, and at 20 and 40 min post-SSP. Maternal reports of child behavior were collected at age 5 years. Results revealed that the associations between nonsecure mother-infant ...

Use it or lose it? Effects of age, experience, and disuse on crawling.

What happens to early acquired but later abandoned motor skills? To investigate effects of disuse on early-developing motor skills, we examined crawling in two groups of habitual crawlers (34 6-12-month-old infants and five adults with Uner Tan Syndrome) and two groups of rusty crawlers (27 11-12-year-old children and 13 college-aged adults). Habitual crawlers showed striking similarities in gait patterns, limbs supporting the body, and crawling speed, despite dramatic differences in crawling practice, post...

The relationship between cognitive enrichment and cognitive control: A systematic investigation of environmental influences on development through socioeconomic status.

We measured the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on cognitive processes. We examined cognitive control, specifically working memory (WM), in a sample of N = 141 7- to 17-year-olds using rule-guided behavior tasks. Our hypothesis is based on computational modeling data that suggest that the development of flexible cognitive control requires variable experiences in which to implement rule-guided action. We found that not all experiences that correlated with SES in our sample impacted task performance, a...

Neural correlates of delay of gratification choice in young children: Near-infrared spectroscopy studies.

Delay of gratification refers to the ability to forgo a small immediate reward to obtain a larger delayed reward. Cognitive mechanisms underlying the delay of gratification in young children have been examined extensively. However, the neural mechanism of this process is largely unknown. The present study examined whether inferior prefrontal regions play an important role in the delay of gratification choice paradigm in young children. Preschool children were given a choice version of a delay of gratificati...

Effect of early-life inflammation and magnesium sulfate on hyperthermia-induced seizures in infant rats: Susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures later in life.

This study investigated the effect of inflammation and MgSO pretreatment on behaviors caused by hyperthermia (HT) and the effect of these interventions on PTZ-induced seizure a week later. In this experimental study, rat pups experienced inflammation on postnatal day 10 (P10). On P18-19, the pups received either saline or MgSO then subjected to hyperthermia. On P25-26, PTZ-induced seizure was initiated in the rats. Neonatal inflammation increased the susceptibility to HT-induced seizure. Inflammation and HT...

A primer on investigating the role of the microbiome in brain and cognitive development.

Incorporating information regarding the gut microbiota into psychobiological research promises to shed new light on how individual differences in brain and cognitive development emerge. However, the investigation of the gut-brain axis in development is still in its infancy and poses several challenges, including data analysis. Considering that the gut microbiome is an eco-system containing millions of bacteria, one needs to utilize a breadth of methodologies and data analytic techniques. The present review ...

The role of the motor system in action understanding and communication: Evidence from human infants and non-human primates.

There is growing evidence that activation of the motor system during observation of actions, a phenomenon first observed in non-human primates, underlies action understanding and even communication. This review (a) examines the evidence on motor system activity as an underlying neural correlate of action understanding; (b) reviews the theoretical and empirical work linking action understanding and the development of communication, with a specific focus on the role that gestures play as an intermediary; and ...

How becoming a mother shapes implicit and explicit responses to infant cues.

This study (a) investigates effects of the transition to motherhood on implicit and explicit responses to infant cues; (b) assesses influences of prior parenting and delivery experiences on implicit and explicit responses to infant cues; and (c) investigates relations between implicit and explicit responses to infant cues and parenting beliefs. A total of 45 pregnant women were followed from the sixth month of pregnancy to the third month after the childbirth and were administered a Single Category Implicit...

Extending the developmental origins of disease model: Impact of preconception stress exposure on offspring neurodevelopment.

The concept of the developmental origins of health and disease via prenatal programming has informed many etiologic models of health and development. Extensive experimental research in non-human animal models has revealed the impact of in utero exposure to stress on fetal development and neurodevelopment later in life. Stress exposure, however, is unlikely to occur de novo following conception, and pregnancy health is not independent of the health of the system prior to conception. For these reasons, the pr...

Trajectory of heart period to socioaffective threat in shy children.

Although shyness is characterized by distinct psychophysiological correlates, we know very little about the development of these correlates. In this longitudinal study, we examined how children's shyness was associated with trajectories of heart period (HP) to socioaffective threat across four assessments spanning approximately 2 years. Children (M  = 6.39 years) viewed age-appropriate, socioaffective videos at each visit while having their HP measured concurrently. A growth curve analysis revealed that ...

Paternal line effects of early experiences persist across three generations in rhesus macaques.

The effects of early stress may not be limited to the exposed generation, but are sometimes passed on to subsequent generations. Such non-genetic transgenerational inheritance is a potentially important developmental and evolutionary force. We compared the transgenerational effects of maternal and paternal line early stress on anxiety- and health-related traits in three non-exposed generations (F1, F2 and F3) of semi-naturalistically raised rhesus macaques. As infants, F0 macaques were exposed to nursery re...

Flawed mothering or infant signaling? The effects of deficient acoustic cues on ovine maternal response.

The neonate distress cry, which displays a similar acoustic structure across a range of mammalian species, is highly effective in attracting, even compelling, parental care. However, if this cry is defective, as found in human and rodent neonates with poor neurobehavioral function, is the signal less enticing? Using playback recordings of a ewe's own co-twins as stimuli in a two choice test, we compared the preference of each sheep dam for acoustic features of lamb distress calls to assess the impact of sig...

A trajectory analysis of childhood motor development following stress in pregnancy: The QF2011 flood study.

This prospective, longitudinal cohort study examined the effects of flood-related stress in pregnancy on the trajectory of children's motor development; and the moderating effects of gestational timing of the flood or sex of the child. Women who were pregnant during a severe flood reported on their objective flood-related experiences, emotional reactions, and cognitive appraisal of the disaster. At 2-, 6-, 16-months, 2½- and 4-years postpartum, mothers' assessed their children's fine and gross motor develo...

Sex differences in juvenile play behavior differ among rat strains.

Juvenile male rats frequently play more than female rats, but the presence of sex differences is affected by testing conditions and may also depend on the strain of rat. In this experiment, we tested play and defensive behaviors in male and female Long-Evans, Sprague-Dawley, and Wistar rats. When observed with a cage mate during the juvenile period, Long-Evans rats played more than Wistar animals, but there were no sex differences in any strain. When tested with an unfamiliar sibling (not seen since weaning...

Are cortisol concentrations in human breast milk associated with infant crying?

The present longitudinal study is the first to investigate the association between human breast milk cortisol and infant crying over the first three months of life. Higher concentrations of breast milk cortisol were expected to be differentially associated with fussing and crying in boys and girls. At 2, 6, and 12 weeks of infant age, mothers (N = 70) collected a morning sample of their milk and kept a 3-day diary to measure infant fussing and crying. Cortisol was extracted and quantified from milk sampl...

Maternal report of infant negative affect predicts attenuated brain response to own infant.

Parent-infant interaction is known to be influenced bidirectionally by parent and infant characteristics. However, it is unclear whether infant temperament affects parents' neural responses to infant stimuli. 85 infants (6-12 months) were filmed in distress-eliciting tasks, which were coded for infants' negative affect. Mothers' reported infant affect was obtained from the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Very Short Form-Revised. Mothers' EEG activity was recorded while passively viewing photos of own, famili...

Child and maternal attachment predict school-aged children's psychobiological convergence.

Psychobiological convergence-the alignment of task-related changes in children's self-reported and physiological indices of reactivity-has recently emerged as a powerful correlate of children's attachment representations, but has not been explored for its association with children's self-reported attachment, with parents' attachment, or with respect to cardiovascular reactivity. The present study found that, within a diverse community sample of mothers and school-aged children (N = 104, M  = 10.31), the...


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