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Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) misfolding and toxic oligomers contribute to beta cell loss and stress in type 2 diabetes. Pregnancy-related diabetes predicts subsequent risk for type 2 diabetes but little is known about the impact of pregnancy on beta cell mass, turnover and stress. Availability of human pancreas tissue in pregnancy is limited and most widely used mouse models of type 2 diabetes do not develop pregnancy-related diabetes, possibly because rodent IAPP is not prone to form toxic oligomers. W...
Offspring of obese women are at increased risk of features of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity and diabetes. Lifestyle intervention in pregnancy might reduce adverse effects of maternal obesity on neonatal adiposity.
We previously reported that exposure to antibodies neutralising serpin B13, a protease inhibitor expressed in exocrine pancreatic ducts, promotes beta cell proliferation, underscoring the importance of a functional relationship between exocrine and endocrine pancreas. The aim of the present study was to identify the molecular events that link inhibition of serpin B13 to islet cell proliferation.
Muscle mass and strength may protect against type 2 diabetes as a sink for glucose disposal. In randomised controlled trials, resistance training improves glucose metabolism in people with the metabolic syndrome. Whether increasing muscle mass and strength protects against diabetes in the general population is unknown. We assessed the effect of markers of muscle mass and strength on diabetes and glycaemic traits using bi-directional Mendelian randomisation.
NAD has gone in and out of fashion within the scientific community a number of times since its discovery in the early 1900s. Over the last decade, NAD has emerged as a potential target for combatting metabolic disturbances and the mitochondrial dysfunction that is mediated through sirtuin (SIRT) enzymes. The beneficial metabolic effects of the NAD/SIRT axis have triggered an increased interest in NAD as an enhancer of energy metabolism. As a result, a myriad of publications have focused on NAD metabolism, w...
Animal studies have indicated that disturbed diurnal rhythms of clock gene expression in adipose tissue can induce obesity and type 2 diabetes. The importance of the circadian timing system for energy metabolism is well established, but little is known about the diurnal regulation of (clock) gene expression in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this study we aimed to identify key disturbances in the diurnal rhythms of the white adipose tissue transcriptome in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) reduces appetite and energy intake in humans, whereas the other incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), seems to have no effect on eating behaviour. Interestingly, studies in rodents have shown that concomitant activation of GIP and GLP-1 receptors may potentiate the satiety-promoting effect of GLP-1, and a novel dual GLP-1/GIP receptor agonist was recently shown to trigger greater weight losses compared with a GLP-1 receptor agonist in individua...
The rs738409 C>G variant of the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with no predisposition for insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of PNPLA3 polymorphisms on liver fat content (LFC) and glucose metabolic variables, and the associations between these, during the natural course of body weight changes in a Chinese adult cohort.
The role of burden and duration of multiple microvascular complications on mortality rate has not been explored in detail in type 1 diabetes. Taking complication burden and time-updated duration into account we aimed to quantify mortality rate in individuals with and without microvascular complications.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects up to 20% of pregnancies, and almost half of the women affected progress to type 2 diabetes later in life, making GDM the most significant risk factor for the development of future type 2 diabetes. An accurate prediction of future type 2 diabetes risk in the early postpartum period after GDM would allow for timely interventions to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. In addition, new targets for interventions may be revealed by understanding the underlying pathophysi...
As part of an institutional investigation by University of Bremen, the work carried out by Kathrin Maedler's laboratory has been reviewed.
The pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy is linked to hyperglycaemia and its effect on retinal microvascular tissues. The resulting endothelial injury changes the endothelial cell phenotype to acquire mesenchymal properties (i.e. endothelial-mesenchymal transition [EndMT]). Such changes can be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). lncRNA H19 may influence EndMT through TGF-β. We investigated the role of H19 in regulating EndMT during diabetic retinopathy.
Recent studies have demonstrated that residual beta cells may be present in some people with long-standing type 1 diabetes, but little is known about the potential impact of this finding on alpha cell function and incretin levels. This study aimed to evaluate whether insulin microsecretion could modulate glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses to a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT).
Müller glia (MG) are major sources of retinal cytokines, and their activation is closely linked to retinal inflammation and vascular leakage in diabetic retinopathy. Previously, we demonstrated that X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a transcription factor activated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetic retinopathy, is involved in regulation of inflammation in retinal endothelial cells. Now, we have explored the role of XBP1 and ER stress in the regulation of MG-derived proinflammatory factors, and...
The aim of this work was to investigate whether tetraspanin 7 autoantibodies (TSPAN7A) are valuable in predicting poor beta cell function in individuals with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. MEDI4166 is a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibody and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue fusion molecule designed to treat patients with type 2 diabetes who are at risk for cardiovascular disease. In this completed, first-in-human study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of single or multiple doses of MEDI4166 in participants with type 2 diabetes.
Over the last two decades, improved access to human islets and the development of human islet distribution networks have enabled the use of millions of human islets in hundreds of scientific research projects, leading to a dramatic increase in our understanding of human islet biology. Here we discuss recent scientific advances as well as methodological and experimental challenges that impact human islet quality, experimental outcomes and the reporting of human islets used in scientific publications. In a su...
The aims of the study were to examine whether type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with greater brain atrophy and cognitive decline, and whether brain atrophy mediates associations between type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline.
Identifying rare coding variants associated with albuminuria may open new avenues for preventing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes. Efforts to identify genetic susceptibility variants for albuminuria have so far been limited, with the majority of studies focusing on common variants.
Although there is substantial evidence that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with impaired glucose homeostasis, the clinical significance of NAFLD in pregnant women has not been well determined. This study investigates the relationship between NAFLD in the first trimester and the subsequent development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
The aim of this study was to investigate the modifying effect of the glucose transporter (GLUT2) gene SLC2A2 (rs8192675) variant on the glycaemic response to metformin in individuals recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.