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The preclinical literature identifies the ventral striatum (VS) as a key player in drug-conditioned responses, guiding hypotheses examining neural substrates involved in human drug cue reactivity, including the study of sex differences. Men show a replicable response that includes the VS, while women's responses have been weaker and variable. New evidence suggests that the hormonal milieu modulates women's responses to drug cues in the dorsal striatum (DS), specifically, in the putamen. Here we tested the h...
Despite the high prevalence of blunt smoking among cannabis users, very few studies examine the clinical profile of blunt smokers relative to those using more common methods of cannabis use, such as joints.
Legal challenges have blocked the implementation of large, pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) in the U.S. In light of future legal questions the U.S. Food and Drug Administration may face in proposing alternative HWLs, we examined whether less restrictive HWL versions on the front of packs-smaller HWLs and/or text-only HWLs that do not include pictorial imagery-may be sufficient to promote cognitive and affective outcomes associated with smoking cessation.
Studies have shown a correlation between language abilities and alcohol use; however, results are inconsistent. A recent study using a discordant twin design showed an association between early child language development and later alcohol use behaviors; i.e., the twin with more advanced language abilities was more likely to try alcohol earlier in adolescence (Latvala et al., 2014). The authors suggested that this could result from better socialization of individuals with greater language abilities, which co...
People who inject drugs (PWID) have limited engagement in healthcare services and report frequent experiences of stigma and mistreatment when accessing services. This paper explores the impact of stigma against injection drug use on healthcare utilization among PWID in the U.S. Northeast.
Prenatal drug exposure may have important repercussions across the lifespan for cognition and behavior. While alcohol is a recognized teratogen, the influences of other substances may also be substantial. The neural underpinnings of the influences of prenatal drug exposure have been examined using longitudinal approaches and multiple imaging techniques. Here we review the existing literature on the neural correlates of prenatal drug exposure. We focused the review on studies that have employed functional ne...
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, e-cigarettes) are increasingly used for the self-administration of nicotine by various human populations, including previously nonsmoking adolescents. Studies in preclinical models are necessary to evaluate health impacts of ENDS including the development of nicotine addiction, effects of ENDS vehicles, flavorants and co-administered psychoactive substances such as Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study was conducted to validate a rat model useful for the study...
Although studies have shown an association between discrimination and current smoking, the influence of discrimination on smoking cessation is an understudied area in tobacco research. The current study evaluated the influence of everyday discrimination on smoking cessation and examined self-efficacy as a potential mediator of this association.
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is prevalent among people with HIV (PWH). Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the most effective treatment for OUD and is associated with improved health outcomes, but is often not initiated. To inform clinical practice, we identified factors predictive of OAT initiation among patients with and without HIV.
Past research identified individuals who experienced adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at a higher risk of drug use. There is evidence to suggest that identifying as a man who has sex with other men (MSM) may increase the likelihood of drug use when adverse childhood experiences are prevalent. However, research has not addressed if this association is present in both rural and urban MSM, as other studies found that rurality/urbanity is a key determinant in detrimental outcomes for MSM. The current st...
To determine the extent to which the transition to parenthood protects against heavy and problematic alcohol consumption in young men and women.
Adolescence is a critical developmental period in the trajectory of nicotine dependence, highlighting the need for a greater understanding of the modifiable risk factors. An extensive body of research has found that trait impulsivity is associated with higher levels of adolescent smoking; however, findings have been mixed. The present study aimed to synthesise existing literature to determine the strength and nature of the relationship between the UPPS-P impulsive traits and both adolescent cigarette consum...
Understanding the association of polydrug use disorders (PUD) with psychosocial and clinical factors is essential for the treatment of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). The aim of this study is to examine whether there is an association between childhood maltreatment, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PUD in individuals with OUD.
Interoception may contribute to substance use disorder as it relates to the body's experience of substance use or withdrawal. However, only a few studies have directly investigated associations between interoception and alcohol use. The objective of this study was to compare individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and healthy controls on interoceptive sensibility and accuracy.
Traumatic dental injuries (TDI), alcohol and illicit drugs consumption are highly-prevalent public health concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alcohol and/or illicit drugs consumption and the presence of TDI.
Despite recent decreases in opioid prescribing rates, evidence suggests there is substantial variation in the way opioids are prescribed by providers. This study aims to identify patterns in high-volume opioid prescribing.
The severity of substance use disorder (SUD) is currently defined by the sum of DSM-5 criteria. However, little is known about the validity of this framework or the role of additional severity indicators in relapse prediction. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DSM-5 criteria, neurocognitive functioning, substance use variables and cocaine relapse among inpatients with cocaine use disorder (CUD).
Opioid drug use is a major cause of premature mortality, with opioid substitution therapy the leading intervention. As methadone-clients age, non-drug-related deaths (non-DRDs) predominate and DRD-risks increase differentially, quadrupling at 45+ years for methadone-specific DRDs.
Co-morbid substance use is very common. Despite a historical focus using genetic epidemiology to investigate comorbid substance use and misuse, few studies have examined substance-substance associations using polygenic risk score (PRS) methods.
How youth perceive harmfulness of risk behaviors such as substance use relates to their engagement in those behaviors. Yet, little is known about how different substance use modes (i.e., variations in amounts and use frequencies) are perceived. We investigated how adolescent perceptions of harmfulness of various alcohol- and cannabis use modes changed over time, compared to one another, and related to actual substance use behaviors.
Individuals who abuse substances often differ from nonusers in their brain structure. Substance abuse and addiction is often associated with atrophy and pathology of grey matter, but much less is known about the role of white matter, which constitutes over half of human brain volume. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a method for non-invasively estimating white matter, is increasingly being used to study addiction and substance abuse. Here we review recent DTI studies of major substances of abuse (alcohol, op...
Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) have been developed to address the public health burden associated with substance use. While these facilities have been associated with a number of positive outcomes, stakeholder opinion (the opinions of those potentially affected by these facilities) is likely to influence their future development. This systematic review aims to answer the question, "how do stakeholders perceive SIFs?"
This study evaluated the effect of ethanol on the repair in calvaria treated with beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). Forty rats were distributed into 2 groups: Water group (CG, n = 20) and Alcohol Group (AG, n = 20), which received 25% ethanol ad libitum after an adaptation period of 3 weeks. After 90 days of liquid diet, the rats were submitted to a 5.0 mm bilateral craniotomy in the parietal bones; the left parietal was filled with β-TCP (CG-TCP and AG-TCP) and the contralateral only with bloo...
Behavioral economics provides a framework for quantifying drug abuse potential that can inform public health risk, clinical treatment, and research. Hypothetical purchase task (HPT) questionnaires may provide a low-cost and sensitive method by which to measure and predict the appeal of pharmaceutical drugs that differ by formulation. However, the validity of this type of analysis must be empirically established by comparing the "essential value" (EV) of different drugs across subgroups.
Young adults have the highest rates of cannabis and other drug use, as compared to other age groups, and contribute a significant proportion to the total population of medical cannabis patients (MCP). However, little is known about the relationships between various cannabis practices and illicit drug use/prescription drug misuse among young adult cannabis users with and without legal access to medical cannabis.