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PubMed Journal Database | Drug testing and analysis RSS

16:53 EDT 19th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 197 from Drug testing and analysis

Enantioselective disposition of (R,R)-formoterol, (S,S)-formoterol and their respective glucuronides in urine following single inhaled dosing and application to doping control.

Formoterol is a long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) used for treatment of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Formoterol is usually administered as a racemic (rac-) mixture of (R,R)- and (S,S)-enantiomers. While formoterol is restricted by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), inhalation of formoterol is permitted to a predetermined dose (54 μg/24 hours) and a urine threshold of 40 ng/mL. However, chiral switch enantiopure (R,R)-formoterol is available, effectively doubling the therap...

Ethylene glycol: Evidence of glucuronidation in vivo shown by analysis of clinical toxicology samples.

In the search for improved laboratory methods for diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning, the in vivo formation of a glucuronide metabolite of ethylene glycol was hypothesised. Chemically pure standards of the β-O-glucuronide of ethylene glycol (EG-GLUC) and a deuterated analogue (d -EG-GLUC) were synthesised. A high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of EG-GLUC in serum after ultrafiltration was validated. Inter-assay precision (%RSD) was 3.9 to 15.1% a...

Areca alkaloids measured from buccal cells using DART-MS serve as accurate biomarkers for areca nut chewing.

Areca nut (AN) chewing is carcinogenic and biomarkers reflecting it are urgently needed to determine the effectiveness of emergent cessation programs. Buccal cells (BCs) may serve as an ideal matrix to measure such biomarkers, however, their utility for this purpose is unknown. Direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is a sensitive technique that analyzes materials in the open air and requires minimal/no sample preparation. We utilized DART-MS to analyze BCs to test its usefulness in meas...

The Synthetic Cathinone Psychostimulant α-PPP Antagonizes Serotonin 5-HT Receptors: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence.

Synthetic cathinones (SC) are β-ketone analogs of amphetamines. Like amphetamines, SC target monoamine transporters, however, unusual neuropsychiatric symptoms have been associated with abuse of some SC, suggesting SC might possess additional pharmacological properties. We performed radioligand competition binding to assess the affinities of nine SC at human 5-HT receptors (5-HT R) and muscarinic M receptors (M R) transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. None of the SC exhibited affinity at M R (minimal disp...

UHPLC-MS/MS Quantitation of Porphyroxine in Opium and Application of Porphyroxine-acetylated Products as Signature Markers for Heroin.

Porphyroxine, a trace alkaloid in opium, was identified in the early 1800s and isolated/characterized in the 1960s. Recently, two significant porphyroxine-related byproducts found in the acidic and neutral extracts of illicit heroin were characterized by this laboratory as the N-acetyl-O -desmethyl-epi-porphyroxine (B) and N,O -diacetyl-O -desmethyl-epi-porphyroxine (C). The prevalence of the B and C compounds has been consistent in the following order of abundance for the thousands of authentic heroin samp...

Beta -adrenergic ligand racemic formoterol exhibits enantioselective disposition in blood and skeletal muscle of humans, and elicits myocellular protein kinase A-signalling at therapeutic inhaled doses.

While studies have demonstrated substantial differences in beta -adrenergic agonist enantiomer pharmacology, enantioselective disposition of long-acting beta -adrenergic ligand racemic (rac)-formoterol in blood is unexplored after inhaled therapy given analytical challenges. Furthermore, information on enantioselective disposition and partitioning of beta -adrenergic agonist in skeletal muscle is absent despite its promising data on muscle anabolism in humans. Using a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-high perfor...

Prevalence of tramadol findings in urine samples obtained in competition.

Assessing Serum Albumin Concentration Following Exercise-Induced Fluid Shifts in the Context of the Athlete Biological Passport.

The hydration status of an athlete at the time of a doping control sample collection is an important factor to consider when reviewing Athlete Biological Passports. Dehydration results in a reduction of the circulating plasma volume (PV), which may lead to artificially high values of some blood parameters. This study aimed to identify whether serum albumin could serve as a single marker of fluid shifts, which are not currently accounted for in the hematological passport. An additional marker could be used t...

Detox Shampoos for EtG and FAEE in Hair - Results from in vitro Experiments.

The assessment of alcohol consumption behavior in hair is well established in forensic toxicology. The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) recommends the direct alcohol markers ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) for the detection of past alcohol consumption. In this study, we investigated if detox shampoos which are sold online can have an impact on EtG or FAEE concentrations in hair. According to customer reviews, positive drug testing results could be avoided after long-term incubation ...

Detection of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in equine urine and blood by SAR-PAGE.

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been used in horses for doping purposes to increase the performance of these animals in endurance sports. Currently, ELISA and mass spectrometry methods are used to detect ESA abuse in equines. However, the sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SAR-PAGE) technique could also be used, since its application in human doping control is well established and has proven to be more sensitive. In this work, the SAR-PAGE method was used to detect rHuEPO, NESP, CERA...

Metabolic profiling of synthetic cannabinoid 5F-ADB by human liver microsome incubations and urine samples using high-resolution mass spectrometry.

5F-ADB (methyl 2-{[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl] amino}-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) is a frequently abused new synthetic cannabinoid that has been sold since at least the end of 2014 in the drug market and has been classified as an illicit drug in most European countries, as well as Turkey, Japan and the United States. In this study, the in vitro metabolism of 5F-ADB was investigated by using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) assay and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-H...

Ion mobility spectrometry as a fast screening tool for synthetic cannabinoids to uncover drug trafficking in jail via herbal mixtures, papers, food and cosmetics.

The greatest challenge for European drug policies is how to effectively respond to the dynamic and constantly changing market for new psychoactive substances (NPS). Even small modifications in the chemical structure of substances often allow circumventing existing laws. Also in prison, the consumption of NPS is rising and there is growing evidence that NPS are responsible for a large share of drug-related problems. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the technique of choice for trace analysis of illicit drug...

Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous detection of 10 illicit drugs in oral fluid collected with FLOQSwabs™ and application to real samples.

According to the French law, the roadside testing for drugs of abuse (DOA) should be performed in oral fluid (OF) using an immunological screening kit. If the screening is positive, confirmation has to be done in OF collected by a special swab, called the FLOQSwab (FS). Unlike other sampling kits, this device was not designed to collect OF since it does not contain an elution buffer. An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous detection of ten DOA under control in France: tetrahydrocannabinol (T...

Methionine in human serum albumin: a novel target for alkylation by sulfur mustard.

Exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard (SM) may lead to erythema and blistering. Toxicity of SM is hypothesized to be due to the alkylation of DNA bases and nucleophilic amino acid side chains in proteins (adducts) by forming the hydroxyethylthioethyl (HETE) moiety. Despite of its prohibition by the chemical weapons convention, SM still represents a serious threat to military personnel and civilians. Therefore, development and improvement of forensic analytical methods for the verification of SM exposure i...

Does the urinary concentration of an inhaled beta 2 agonist always reflect the inhaled dose and method of administration?

Cumyl-PEGACLONE: A comparatively safe new synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist entering the NPS market?

Optimization and validation of simultaneous analyses of ecgonine, cocaine and seven metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a one-step solid-phase extraction.

The presence of ecgonine in urine has been proposed as an appropriate marker of cocaine use. Only a few methods have been published for their determination along with cocaine and the rest of its metabolites. Due to their high polarity and consequent solubility in water, these have low recoveries, which is why it is necessary to increase the sensitivity, by the formation of hydrochloric salts or multiderivatization of the analytes or by performing two solid phase extractions (SPE), considerably increasing th...

Application of a molecular networking approach for clinical and forensic toxicology exemplified in three cases involving 3-MeO-PCP, doxylamine, and chlormequat.

Untargeted toxicological screening is an analytical challenge, given the high number of molecules and metabolites to be detected and the constant appearance of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The combination of liquid chromatography with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in a data-dependent acquisition mode generates a large volume of high quality spectral data. Commercial software for processing MS data acquired during untargeted screening experiments usually compare measured features (ma...

Investigating the ability of the microbial model Cunninghamella elegans for the metabolism of synthetic tryptamines.

Tryptamines can occur naturally in plants, mushrooms, microbes and amphibians and synthetic tryptamines have been sold as New Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their hallucinogenic effects. When it comes to NPS, metabolism studies are of crucial importance, due to the lack of pharmacological and toxicological data. In order to study in vitro and in vivo metabolism of xenobiotica, different approaches can be taken. The zygomycete fungus Cunninghamella elegans (C. elegans) can be used as a microbial model...

Doping control analysis of four JWH-250 metabolites in equine urine by LC-MS/MS.

JWH-250 is a synthetic cannabinoid. Its use is prohibited in equine sport according to the Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI) and the Fédération Équestre Internationale (FEI). A doping control method to confirm the presence of four JWH-250 metabolites (JWH-250 4-OH-pentyl, JWH-250 5-OH-pentyl, JWH-250 5-OH-indole and JWH-250 N-pentanoic acid) in equine urine was developed and validated. Urine samples were treated with acetonitrile and evaporated to concentrate the analytes prior to ...

Evaluation of endogenous urinary biomarkers for indirect detection of urine adulteration attempts by five different chemical adulterants in mass spectrometry methods.

Reliable detection of urine adulteration attempts to circumvent positive drug testing represents a critical step for laboratories in abstinence control settings. An ideal workflow for high-throughput testing would involve simultaneous detection of adulteration attempts in the very same run with drug detection. Monitoring of degraded or oxidized endogenous urinary compounds as indirect markers has been previously evaluated for that purpose exemplified for the adulterant potassium nitrite (KNO ). Fifteen, pre...

Analytical considerations for (un)-targeted metabolomic studies with special focus on forensic applications.

Over the past few years the interest in metabolomics has increased in various fields including forensic toxicology. Forensic analysis typically requires a high degree of accuracy, which is often a problem in metabolomics applications. We aimed for a systematic evaluation of different analytical considerations of a metabolomics workflow allowing a targeted approach within an untargeted setup. Samples with 69 metabolites from different chemical classes were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed on a high ...

A further insight on the metabolic profile of the nuclear receptor Rev-erb agonist, SR9009.

The reactions involved in the metabolic pathways of SR9009 were characterized by LC-MS to identify the most appropriate marker(s) of use. The effects of gender, genetic polymorphism and drug-drug interactions on the metabolic profile of SR9009 were also evaluated. In vitro approaches were based on the use of human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 isoforms. Sample preparation included an enzymatic hydrolysis (performed only for the phase II investigation) followed by liquid/liquid extraction. The chromat...

METABOLISM AND ELIMINATION OF THE CATECHOL-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE INHIBITOR TOLCAPONE IN THE HORSE.

The metabolism of the masking agent tolcapone in the horse has been investigated. This substance was found to have undergone various chemical transformations that produced a large variety of phase I metabolites, as well as glucuronide and sulfate conjugation. Confirmation of the presence of tolcapone and the 3-O-methylated metabolite in the blood samples collected up to 240 minutes and in urine obtained up to 24 hours, was successfully conducted using both GC- and LC-MS/MS techniques. The 3-O-methyl tolcapo...

Detection of bemitil and its metabolite in urine by means of LC-MS/MS in view of doping control analysis.

2-(Ethylthio) benzimidazole is an active ingredient of Antihot - a dietary supplement sold in Ukraine. The substance, available also under names of Bemitil, Metaprot, and Bemaktor, was developed in the USSR in 1970s, and after tests on Soviet cosmonauts and soldiers, several studies on its influence on athletes' performances were conducted. The research showed that bemitil is a synthetic adaptogen which is capable to significantly increase physical performance and reduce the time of regeneration. Moreover, ...


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