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Cochlear implants (CIs) are remarkable in allowing individuals with severe to profound hearing loss to perceive speech. Despite these gains in speech understanding, however, CI users often struggle to perceive elements such as vocal emotion and prosody, as CIs are unable to transmit the spectro-temporal detail needed to decode affective cues. This issue becomes particularly important for children with CIs, but little is known about their emotional development. In a previous study, pediatric CI users showed ...
The motivation for this research is to determine whether a listening-while-balancing task would be sensitive to quantifying listening effort in middle age. The premise behind this exploratory work is that a decrease in postural control would be demonstrated in challenging acoustic conditions, more so in middle-aged than in younger adults.
Vestibular reflexes have traditionally formed the cornerstone of vestibular evaluation, but perceptual tests have recently gained attention for use in research studies and potential clinical applications. However, the unknown reliability of perceptual thresholds limits their current importance. This is addressed here by establishing the test-retest reliability of vestibular perceptual testing.
Speech-in-noise (SIN) perception is essential for everyday communication. In most communication situations, the listener requires the ability to process simultaneous complex auditory signals to understand the target speech or target sound. As the listening situation becomes more difficult, the ability to distinguish between speech and noise becomes dependent on recruiting additional cognitive resources, such as working memory (WM). Previous studies have explored correlations between WM and SIN perception in...
The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analyses to assess the influence of family environment on language development in children with cochlear implants.
When auditory and visual speech information are presented together, listeners obtain an audiovisual (AV) benefit or a speech understanding improvement compared with auditory-only (AO) or visual-only (VO) presentations. Cochlear-implant (CI) listeners, who receive degraded speech input and therefore understand speech using primarily temporal information, seem to readily use visual cues and can achieve a larger AV benefit than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. It is unclear, however, if the AV benefit remains re...
To evaluate the effect of artifacts on the impulse and response recordings with the video head impulse test (VHIT) and determine how many stimuli are necessary for obtaining acceptably efficient measurements.
Understanding how signal processing influences neural activity in the brain with hearing loss is relevant to the design and evaluation of features intended to alleviate speech-in-noise deficits faced by many hearing aid wearers. Here, we examine whether hearing aid processing schemes that are designed to improve speech-in-noise intelligibility (i.e., directional microphone and noise reduction) also improve electrophysiological indices of speech processing in older listeners with hearing loss.
This systematic review is designed to (a) describe measures used to quantify vocal development in pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users, (b) synthesize the evidence on prelinguistic vocal development in young children before and after cochlear implantation, and (c) analyze the application of the current evidence for evaluating change in vocal development before and after cochlear implantation for young children. Investigations of prelinguistic vocal development after cochlear implantation are only beginning...
A cochlear implant (CI) implements a variety of sound processing algorithms that seek to improve speech intelligibility. Typically, only a small number of parameter combinations are evaluated with recipients but the optimal configuration may differ for individuals. The present study evaluates a novel methodology which uses the output signal to noise ratio (OSNR) to predict complete psychometric functions that relate speech recognition to signal to noise ratio for individual CI recipients.
This study aims to characterize lateralization of sounds and localization of sounds in children with bilateral conductive hearing loss (BCHL) when listening with either one or two percutaneous bone conduction devices (BCDs).
Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing degrades the spectral components of speech. This requires CI users to rely primarily on temporal cues, specifically, amplitude modulations within the temporal envelope, to recognize speech. Auditory temporal processing ability for envelope modulations worsens with advancing age, which may put older CI users at a disadvantage compared with younger users. To evaluate how potential age-related limitations for processing temporal envelope modulations impact spectrally deg...
There are very limited data regarding the spoken language and academic outcomes of children with mild to severe hearing loss (HL) during the elementary school years, and the findings of these studies are inconsistent. None of these studies have examined the possible role of aided hearing in these outcomes. This study used a large cohort of children to examine these outcomes and in particular to examine whether aided hearing moderates the effect of HL with regard to these outcomes.
Previous research has shown that children with cochlear implants (CIs) encounter more communication difficulties than their normal-hearing (NH) peers in kindergarten and elementary schools. Yet, little is known about the potential listening difficulties that children with CIs may experience during secondary education. The aim of this study was to investigate the listening difficulties of children with a CI in mainstream secondary education and to compare these results to the difficulties of their NH peers a...
The objective of this study was to determine if absent air conduction stimuli vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses found in ears after cochlear implantation can be the result of alterations in peripheral auditory mechanics rather than vestibular loss. Peripheral mechanical changes were investigated by comparing the response rates of air and bone conduction VEMPs as well as by measuring and evaluating wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) responses in ears with cochlear implants and normal-hear...
The purpose of this study was to examine age- and hearing-related differences in school-age children's benefit from visual speech cues. The study addressed three questions: (1) Do age and hearing loss affect degree of audiovisual (AV) speech enhancement in school-age children? (2) Are there age- and hearing-related differences in the mechanisms underlying AV speech enhancement in school-age children? (3) What cognitive and linguistic variables predict individual differences in AV benefit among school-age ch...
There is a great deal of variation in the extent to which people with tinnitus find it distressing, which cannot be explained solely by differences in perceived loudness. The Cognitive Behavioral Model of Tinnitus Distress proposes that tinnitus becomes and is maintained as a distressing problem due to a process of interaction between negative thoughts, negative emotions, attention and monitoring, safety behavior, and beliefs. This study used path analysis to assess how well different configurations of this...
The primary objective of this study was to quantify differences in evoked potential correlates of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) density between younger and older individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) using the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP). In human temporal bone studies and in animal models, SGN density is the lowest in older subjects and in those who experienced long durations of deafness during life. SGN density also varies as a function of age at implantation and hearing loss et...
The aim of this research was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE). The HHIE is one of the most widely used patient-reported outcome measures in audiology. It was originally developed in the United States in the 1980s as a measure of the social and emotional impact of hearing loss in older adults. It contains 25 items that are accompanied by a 3-point response scale. To date, the measurement properties of the HHIE have primarily been assessed via tra...
The primary objective of this study was to quantify local (within ear) and global (between ear) variation in the cochlear implant (CI) electrode-neuron interface (ENI) using the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP). We tested the hypothesis that, within an ear, ECAP measures can be used to identify channels with presumed good and poor ENIs, which may be influenced by a combination of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) density, electrode position, and cochlear resistivity. We also hypothesized that...
The human auditory nerve can be electrically stimulated by cochlear implants (CIs) with pulse trains consisting of biphasic pulses with small interphase gaps (IPGs). In animal experiments, lower electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) thresholds in implanted animals were found for increasing IPGs (2.1, 10, 20, 30 μs). ECAP thresholds may correlate with loudness thresholds. Therefore, in this study, the IPG effect on loudness and dynamic range was investigated in nine CI subjects.
Extracochlear electrodes in cochlear implants (CI), defined as individual electrodes on the electrode array located outside of the cochlea, are not a rare phenomenon. The presence of extracochlear electrodes frequently goes unnoticed and could result in them being assigned stimulation frequencies that are either not delivered to, or stimulating neurons that overlap with intracochlear electrodes, potentially reducing performance. The current gold-standard for detection of extracochlear electrodes is computed...
This study asks whether the LittlEARs Auditory Questionnaire (LEAQ), a caregiver measure, can differentiate between the early auditory development of children with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs), bilateral hearing aids (HAs), and children with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) who wear CIs or HAs. The LEAQ is sensitive to impaired auditory development but has not previously been used to distinguish developmental changes between groups of children using different hearing technologies or with di...