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PubMed Journal Database | Ecology RSS

07:00 EDT 24th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 415 from Ecology

Geographic distribution ranges of terrestrial mammal species in the 1970s.

Here we provide geographic distribution ranges for 205 species of terrestrial non-volant mammals in the 1970s. We selected terrestrial non-volant mammals because they are among the most studied groups, have greater availability of historical distribution data for the 1970s decade, and also show the largest range contractions compared to other taxonomic groups (Di Minin et al. 2013; Ripple et al., 2014). Species belong to 52 families and 16 orders. Range maps were extracted from scientific literature inclu...

Tiger sharks eat songbirds: scavenging a windfall of nutrients from the sky.

Empirical evidence that large marine predator foraging behavior is consistent with area-restricted search theory.

When prey is patchily distributed, predators are expected to spend more time searching for food in proximity of recent prey captures before searching in other areas. This behavior, known as area-restricted search, results in predators remaining localized in areas where prey had been detected previously because of the higher probability of encountering additional prey. However, few studies have tested these predictions on marine species because of the difficulties of observing feeding behavior. In this study...

Left out in the cold: temperature-dependence of defense in an African ant-plant mutualism.

Many tropical plants are defended by ants, and the costs and benefits of these mutualisms can vary across gradients of herbivory, soil fertility, latitude, and other environmental factors. Yet despite an abundant literature documenting thermal constraints on ant activity and behavior, we know little about whether temperature variation can influence the benefits conferred by ants to plants. We evaluated the effects of dawn-to-dusk fluctuations in temperature on patrolling and aggressive behavior in four arbo...

Species insurance trumps spatial insurance in stabilizing biomass of a marine macroalgal metacommunity.

Because natural ecosystems are complex, it is difficult to predict how their variability scales across space and levels of organization. The species-insurance hypothesis predicts that asynchronous dynamics among species should reduce variability when biomass is aggregated either from local species populations to local multispecies communities, or from metapopulations to metacommunities. Similarly, the spatial-insurance hypothesis predicts that asynchronous spatial dynamics among either local populations or ...

Novel life history tactic observed in fall-run Chinook Salmon.

Interspecific prey neighborhoods shape risk of predation in a savanna ecosystem.

The vulnerability of an individual to predation depends on the availability of other prey items in the surrounding environment. Interspecific prey aggregations or "neighborhoods" may therefore affect an individual's vulnerability to predation. We examined the influence of prey neighborhood structure (i.e., the densities and identities of prey neighborhoods) on spatial variation in predation in a multi-prey system with a primary apex predator. We combined GPS locations of lions (Panthera leo), kill-site surv...

The Australian National Rabbit Database: 50 years of population monitoring of an invasive species.

With ongoing introductions into Australia since the 1700s, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has become one of the most widely distributed and abundant vertebrate pests, adversely impacting Australia's biodiversity and agro-economy. To better understand the population and range dynamics of the species and its impacts, occurrence and abundance data have been collected by researchers and citizens from sites covering a broad spectrum of climatic and environmental conditions in Australia. The lack of ...

Functional differences stabilize beetle communities by weakening interspecific temporal synchrony.

The temporal stability of communities is essential for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning across trophic levels. The stabilizing effect of biodiversity is, among other factors, modulated by the level of synchrony in population fluctuations among the species in the community. What drives community synchrony, however, remains largely unclear. Community synchrony can be affected by external drivers such as disturbances, but also by the properties of the community: species with different ecological strate...

A theory of pulse dynamics and disturbance in ecology.

We propose four postulates as the minimum set of logical propositions necessary for a theory of pulse dynamics and disturbance in ecosystems: 1) 'Resource Dynamics' characterizes the magnitude, rate, and duration of resource change caused by pulse events, including the continuing changes in resources that are the result of abiotic and biotic processes; 2) 'Energy Flux' characterizes the energy flow that controls the variation in the rates of resource assimilation across ecosystems; 3) 'Patch Dynamics' chara...

Life table invasion models: spatial progression and species-specific partitioning.

Biological invasions are increasingly being considered important spatial processes that drive global changes, threatening biodiversity, regional economies, and ecosystem functions. A unifying conceptual model of the invasion dynamics could serve as a useful tool for comparison and classification of invasion processes involving different species across large geographic ranges. By dividing these geographic ranges that are subject to invasions into discrete spatial units, we here conceptualize the invasion pro...

Pregnant giant devil ray (Mobula mobular) bycatch reveals potential Northern Gulf of California pupping ground.

Narrow pollen diets are associated with declining Midwestern bumble bee species.

Many species of bumble bee (Bombus) have declined in range and abundance across Europe, the Americas, and Asia, whereas other species have persisted and remain common and widespread. One explanation as to why some species have declined, based primarily on studies of the European bumble bee fauna, is that declining species have relatively narrow pollen-foraging niches and are less able to use alternative host plants in the absence of their preferred hosts. Though extensively explored in Europe, this hypothes...

NEOTROPICAL XENARTHRANS: a data set of occurrence of xenarthran species in the Neotropics.

Xenarthrans-anteaters, sloths, and armadillos-have essential functions for ecosystem maintenance, such as insect control and nutrient cycling, playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. Because of habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, and conflicts with domestic dogs, these species have been threatened locally, regionally, or even across their full distribution ranges. The Neotropics harbor 21 species of armadillos, 10 anteaters, and 6 sloths. Our data set includes the families Chlamyphoridae (13...

Habitat edge responses of generalist predators are predicted by prey and structural resources.

Generalist predators are thought to be less vulnerable to habitat fragmentation because they use diverse resources across larger spatial scales than specialist predators. Thus, it has been suggested that generalist predators may respond positively to habitat edges or demonstrate no edge response, because they can potentially use prey resources equally well on both sides of the habitat edge. However, most predictions about generalist predator responses to the habitat edge are based solely on prey resources, ...

Citizen science reveals female sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) exhibit signs of site fidelity on shipwrecks.

Insect community structure covaries with host plant chemistry but is not affected by prior herbivory.

By feeding on plant tissue, insect herbivores can change several characteristics of their hosts. These changes have the potential to alter the quality of the plant for other herbivore species, potentially altering the structure of the community of species attacking the plant at a later point in time. We tested whether herbivory early in the season changes host plant performance, polyphenol chemistry, and the community structure of sessile herbivores later in the season. We experimentally manipulated densiti...

Bedrock nitrogen weathering stimulates biological nitrogen fixation.

Global ecosystem models suggest that bedrock nitrogen (N) weathering contributes 10-20% of total N inputs to the natural terrestrial biosphere and >38% of ecosystem N supplies in temperate forests specifically. Yet, the role of rock N weathering in shaping ecological processes and biogeochemical fluxes is largely unknown. Here, we show that temperate forest ecosystems underlain by N-rich bedrock exhibit higher free-living N fixation rates than similar forests residing on N-poor parent materials, across site...

Altitudinal gradients fail to predict fungal symbiont responses to warming.

Climate change is shifting altitudinal species ranges, with potential to disrupt species interactions. Altitudinal gradient studies and warming experiments can both increase understanding of climate effects on species interactions, but few studies have used both together to improve predictions. We examined whether plant-fungal symbioses responded similarly to altitude and 23 years of experimental warming. Root- and leaf-associated fungi, which can mediate plants' climate sensitivity, responded divergently t...

Demographic senescence and effects on population dynamics of a perennial plant.

Demographic rates in plants are usually assumed to be more stage or size dependent than age dependent, and aging is therefore not considered in demographic models. However, little is known about the effect of age on demographic rates, as there still are few studies based on long-term individual-based plant population data that consider both individual age and size. In addition, little is known about how aging of individuals may affect population dynamics. We present analyses of demographic data for three po...

Nitrogen fixation does not balance fire-induced nitrogen losses in longleaf pine savannas.

Fire is a critical force in structuring ecosystems, but it also removes substantial amounts of nitrogen (N), which can limit plant growth. Biological N fixation (BNF) may alleviate fire-induced N deficiencies that inhibit ecosystem recovery, yet if and how BNF achieves this under frequent fire is unclear. This problem is further complicated in the context of modern human influences (such as land-use history and atmospheric N deposition), which may confound the relationship between fire and fixation. Here, w...

Migration of soil microbes may promote tree seedling tolerance to drying conditions.

Soil-microbial interactions have the potential to mediate the ability of tree populations to persist in their current location or establish in new areas. Immigration of microbial taxa from drier conditions may promote seedling tolerance to drying climates. In a greenhouse experiment, we determined seedling performance of Ostrya virginiana and Betula nigra seedlings after experimentally swapping sterilized soils and local and foreign microbial inocula from nine sites over a gradient of precipitation and ...

Contrasting vegetation states do not diverge in soil organic matter storage: evidence from historical sites in tundra.

Ecosystems where severe disturbance has induced permanent shifts in vegetation and soil processes may represent alternative stable states. To date, little is known on how long-lasting changes in soil processes are following such disturbances, and how the changes in plant and soil processes between the alternative states eventually manifest themselves in soil organic matter (SOM) storage. Here, we analyzed plant density, the shrub:forb -ratio, microbial respiration, extracellular enzyme activities and SOM st...

High-frequency sampling and piecewise models reshape dispersal kernels of a common reef coral.

Models of dispersal potential are required to predict connectivity between populations of sessile organisms. However, to date, such models do not allow for time-varying rates of acquisition and loss of competence to settle and metamorphose, and permit only a limited range of possible survivorship curves. We collect high-resolution observations of coral larval survival and metamorphosis, and apply a piecewise modeling approach that incorporates a broad range of temporally-varying rates of mortality and loss ...

Fluctuation-independent niche differentiation and relative non-linearity drive coexistence in a species-rich grassland.

Despite the advances in ecological theory, evidence for the relative importance of the different mechanisms that promote species coexistence is lacking. Some mechanisms depend on the presence of interannual fluctuations in the environment combined with inter-specific differences in the responses to such fluctuations. Among coexistence mechanisms, niche differentiation and storage effects have received much attention, whereas relative non-linearity (RNL) has been thought to be an unlikely and weak mechanism ...


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