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PubMed Journal Database | Environmental toxicology and pharmacology RSS

11:53 EDT 21st July 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 566 from Environmental toxicology and pharmacology

The potential exposure and hazards of copper nanoparticles: A review.

Copper is an essential element for metabolism in plants and animals. In its nanoform, copper has found various applications, thus increasing potential environmental exposure. Released nanoparticles in the environment undergo various transformation processes while bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper nanoparticles have been demonstrated in plants and animals. This toxicity is thought to be a combined effect of intracellular particles and the release of dissolved copper ions. Oxidative stress responses have...

Transcriptomic profiling of Hydra magnipapillata after exposure to naproxen.

The extensive use in humans and animals of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increases their possible impact on aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigated acute toxicity, morphological responses, and potential physiological and metabolic impacts of naproxen exposure on Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations (LC) of naproxen in H. magnipapillata were 51.999 mg/L, 44.935 mg/L, and 42.500 mg/L after exposure for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Morphological obs...

N-acetylcysteine dual and antagonistic effect on cadmium cytotoxicity in human leukemia cells.

Although cadmium (Cd) is unable to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly, many of its adverse effects are connected to increased ROS generation resulting in cell death. In support of this supposition, a large number of studies have shown protective effects of antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against cadmium induced cytotoxicity. Here, we describe the cytotoxic effects of Cd on human leukemia U937 and K562 cells that were not mediated by oxidative stress. Surprisingly, we observed that addit...

Biomarker-based assessment of the toxicity of the antifungal clotrimazol to the microcrustacean Daphnia magna.

Among the vast list of xenobiotics that may promote harmful effects in aquatic ecosystems, pharmaceuticals are currently a prominent class due to their ability to persist in these environments and also due to the lack of information regarding their effects on the different components of the aquatic biota. Antifungals in particular, despite their massive use, are not extensively studied in environbmental terms. The main objective of this study was to characterize the toxicity of the antifungal clotrimazole t...

Induction of chemokine CCL3 by NF-κB reduces methylmercury toxicity in C17.2 mouse neural stem cells.

Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that shows selective toxicity to the central nervous system. We previously reported that brain-specific expression of chemokine CCL3 increases in mice administered methylmercury. However, the relationship between CCL3 and methylmercury toxicity has not been elucidated. Here, we confirmed that induction of CCL3 expression occurs before pathological change by methylmercury treatment was observed in the mouse brain. This induction was also observed in C17.2 mouse neu...

Silver nanoparticles testicular toxicity in rat.

To evaluate the potential testicular toxicity induced by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in Sprague Dawley rate. The protocol study was designed as follows: G1: 30 adult male rats were kept as control. G2: 30 adult male rats were administered 5.36 mg/kg of AgNPs orally, twice weekly for six months. G3: 30 adult male rats were administered 13.4 mg/kg of AgNPs orally, twice weekly for six months. The results of hormonal assay revealed that a significant decrease in testosterone level while a significant incr...

Expression of serine proteases in neutrophils from women and men: Regulation by endocrine disruptor bisphenol A.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disruptor. However, little information is available about its immunological effects. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate cytotoxic activity of BPA on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) according to gender and examine its effect on the expression of neutrophil serine proteases. Results indicated that exposure to BPA (above 16 μM) leads to a decrease in viability of PMNs and to morphological changes in these cells of both genders. The experiments s...

Evaluation of lapatinib cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line.

Lapatinib, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), is used to reduce epidermal growth factor family proteins overexpression. This study aims to assess the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of lapatinib on the triple negative breast cancer cell line "MDA-MB-231". We investigated the cytotoxicity of lapatinib by MTT assay, mode of cell death using apoptosis-necrosis assay, DNA damage using micronucleus test, EGFR protein expression by immunocytochemistry, and assessed its effect on EGFR (7p11.2 locus) and...

A pilot study to assess peripheral blood TCR β-chain CDR3 repertoire in occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene using high-throughput sequencing.

We exploratively characterized T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires from occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene (OMDT) patients to better understand the underlying pathological mechanism. We used a combination of multiplex-PCR, Illumina sequencing and IMGT/High V-QUEST to analyze the characteristics and polymorphisms of the TCR β-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) gene in 10 OMDT cases and 10 trichloroethylene-exposed healthy tolerant controls. Compared with the tol...

Investigating the inotropic effect of pyruvic acid on the isolated rat heart and its underlying mechanism.

Pyruvic acid is important organic chemical intermediates that plays a role in cardiomyocyte pathophysiology and therapy. This study sought to explore the inotropic effects of pyruvic acid on the function of the isolated rat hearts and investigate its underlying mechanism. Pyruvic acid produced a greater negative inotropic effect compared to HCl and sodium pyruvate in a concentration-dependent pattern in the hearts. The role of low dose of pyruvic acid on heart function was regulated by pyruvic acid molecule...

A protective study of curcumin associated with Cr induced oxidative stress, genetic damage, transcription of genes related to apoptosis and histopathology of fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793).

Ameliorative potential of curcumin against Cr-induced eco-toxicological manifestations was assessed in liver of exposed Channa punctatus (Actinopterygii) in six groups for 45 d; Group I as control. Group II with 3 mg/L of curcumin; group III with 7.89 mg/L of Cr. Groups IV, V and VI were simultaneously co-exposed with 7.89 mg/L of Cr and three different curcumin concentrations, 1, 2, and 3 mg/L, respectively. In group III, SOD-CAT, GR significantly (p 

Responses of Chlorella vulgaris exposed to boron: Mechanisms of toxicity assessed by multiple endpoints.

Boron (B) has been widely used and contaminated the aquatic ecosystem. However, knowledge of the effects of sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (SPP) on algae remains limited. This study aimed to assess SPP toxicity using multiple endpoints, specially detecting the intracellular metal ion concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) classes for the very first time during SPP exposure to Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). Our findings indicated that the inhibitory effe...

Effects of cyclophosphamide on the phenotypes and functions of THP-1 cells.

Early and accurate evaluation of immunotoxicity is crucial. However, there are few in vitro models for immunosuppressive evaluation. THP-1 cells has long been used for in vitro sensitivity evaluation. Whether it can be used for immunosuppressive evaluation remains unclear. In this study, effects of immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide (CY) on THP-1 cells were observed while 2, 4-Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) was used as a control. The phenotypes of THP-1 cells, the ability to activate naïve T cells, intracellu...

Evaluation of cytogenotoxicity and oxidative stress parameters in male Swiss mice co-exposed to titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles.

A number of studies have investigated the adverse toxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO) nanoparticles (NPs) or zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs. Information on the potential genotoxic effects of the interactions of TiO NPs and ZnO NPs in vivo is lacking. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the cytogenotoxicity of TiO NPs or ZnO NPs alone or their mixtures using the bone marrow micronucleus assay, and mechanism of damage through the evaluation of oxidative stress parameters in the liver and kidney tissue...

Indole-3-carbinol inhibits lipid deposition and promotes autophagy in hyperlipidemia zebrafish larvae.

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is extracted from cruciferous vegetables and is well known for its anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the protective effect of I3C in hyperlipidemia zebrafish larvae and early life stage toxicity of I3C on zebrafish embryos/larvae. Zebrafish larvae were fed with 4% high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and treated with I3C 2.5μmol/L and 5μmol/L for two weeks. Confocal image analysis, oil Red O staining were used to analysis vascular lipid accumula...

Prediction and risk assessment of five heavy metals in maize and peanut: A case study of Guangxi, China.

To assess the contamination levels and health risk of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) to human beings, the concentrations of these heavy metals in soil were surveyed and the concentrations in maize and peanut grains were estimated by models. The geo-accumulation index (I ) was calculated, and chronic daily intake (CDI), hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were estimated. Results indicated that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn in the soil samples exceeded ...

Species-specific models in toxicology: in vitro epithelial barriers.

Species-specific in vitro epithelial barriers represent interesting predictive tools for risk assessment evaluation in toxicological studies. Moreover, these models could be applied either as stand-alone methods for the study of absorption, bioavailability, excretion, transport, effects of xenobiotics, or through an Integrated Testing Strategy. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of in vitro species-specific epithelial barrier models from bovine, dog and swine. Bovine mammary epitheli...

The interaction effects of coke oven emissions exposure and metabolic enzyme Gene variants on total antioxidant capacity of workers.

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between coke oven emissions (COEs) exposure and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and to explore whether genetic variations in metabolic enzyme genes GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and CYP2E1 can affect these associations in coke oven workers.

Pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous cannabidiol and its antidepressant-like effects in chronic mild stress mouse model.

Cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits significant efficacy in mental and inflammatory diseases. Several studies have recently reported on the rapid antidepressant-like effects of CBD, suggesting that CBD is a potential anti-depressant or anti-stress drug. However, CBD is mainly administered orally or by inhalation with poor bioavailability, resulting in high costs. We aim to explore the efficacy of long-term periodic administration of CBD in chronic mild stress (CMS) via two routes and its pharmacokinetics. We treated...

Bioinformatic and experimental data decipher the pharmacological targets and mechanisms of plumbagin against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Plumbagin exerts effective anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) benefits, however, the detailed mechanisms behind these effects are not yet completely elucidated. The pharmacological targets and molecular mechanisms of plumbagin against HCC were revealed through conducting network pharmacology approach before experimentative verification.

Differential detoxifying responses to crude oil water-accommodated fraction in Hyallela curvispina individuals from unpolluted and contaminated sites.

Sublethal effects of water-accommodated fraction (WAF) from crude oil of Neuquén basin, Northern Patagonia-Argentina, were examined on both antioxidant and detoxification system of Hyalella curvispina adults collected in Los Barreales (LB) lake and in an oil-polluted stream (DS). The effects of WAF exposure during 6, 24 and 48 h were evaluated in the glutathione content (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activities. Populations from DS and LB showed not...

Copper effect on the biomarker state of the Mizuhopecten yessoensis tissues in the prespawning period.

The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of the marine scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis to different copper concentrations (10 and 30 μgl-1) in the prespawning period. Reaction of the scallop to this effect was evaluated by a set of biomarkers, including general metabolism enzymes (acid and alkaline phosphatase activities - AcPase, ALP), and oxidative stress parameters (catalase antioxidant enzyme activity - CAT and levels of damage for DNA, lipids and proteins). Experiment results show th...

Toxicity of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate to Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in low-salinity water in single and ternary exposure experiments and their environmental implications.

Information on toxicity of nitrogen compounds for Litopenaeus vannamei in coastal ecosystems and culture under low salinity is scarce. Acute toxicity trials were conducted in L. vannamei to determine the single and combined effects of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate at a salinity of 3 g/L. The 96 h-LC was 29.0 mg/L for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN); 10.6 mg/L for nitrogen as nitrite (NO-N); and 900 mg/L for nitrogen as nitrate (NO-N). The joint effects of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate exposure were ant...

d-Limonene protects PC12 cells against corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity by activating the AMPK pathway.

The stress-induced hormone corticosterone initiates oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, culminating in cell apoptosis and neurological changes. We assessed the effects of d-Limonene on a PC12 cellular model of corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity, and whether these effects involved the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) pathway. PC12 cells were treated with corticosterone with or without d-limonene for 24 h. Western blots were performed to measure activation of AMPK pathway members [Silent mat...

Alterations to the vision-associated transcriptome of zebrafish (Danio rerio) following developmental norethindrone exposure.

Synthetic sex steroids, like the synthetic progestin norethindrone (NET), can affect a wide variety of biological processes via highly conserved mechanisms. NET is prevalent in surface waters, yet the sub-lethal effects of NET exposure are not are net yet well characterized in aquatic biota. A few targeted gene expression and behavioral studies have concluded that NET affects the vision of adult fish; however, early life stage (ELS) fish are often more sensitive to contaminants. Furthermore, many species of...


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