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Differential displacement between tendon layers has been shown to occur within the healthy Achilles tendon, and changes of this mechanism have been proposed to result in shear forces, which potentially could lead to tendinopathy. The magnitude of displacement between the tendon layers in tendinopathy is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate Achilles tendon layer displacement in individuals suffering from unilateral tendinopathy compared with the asymptomatic contralateral side.
The motor cortex (M1) appears to be a primary site of adaptation following both a single session, and repeated strength-training sessions across multiple weeks. Given that a single session of strength-training is sufficient to induce modification at the level of the M1 and corticospinal tract, this study sought to determine how these acute changes in M1 and corticospinal tract might accumulate across the course of a 2-week heavy-load strength-training program.
We examined the effects of hypoxaemia on dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in lowlanders and Sherpa highlanders. We hypothesized that dCA in lowlanders would be reduced to a greater extent in the common carotid artery (CCA) compared to the internal carotid artery (ICA) during acute hypoxia at sea level and at high altitude, whereas Sherpa highlanders would have preserved dCA upon ascent to high altitude.
The effects of the seat tube angle and crank arm length on metabolic responses, neuromuscular activation, and lower extremity joint kinematics were investigated during bicycling with a relatively lower seat height usually used for daily life.
This study examined the post-activation potentiation effects of body-weight lunge exercises with blood-flow restriction on jump performance. Eighteen anaerobically trained men took part in this study across 3 weeks.
To compare two analytical methods for the estimation of the shivering onset inflection point, segmental regression and visual inspection of data, and to assess the test-retest reliability and validity of four metrics of shivering measurement; oxygen uptake (V̇O), electromyography (EMG), mechanomyography (MMG) and bedside shivering assessment scale (BSAS).
The force-generating capacities of human skeletal muscles are interrelated, highlighting a common construct of limb strength. This study aimed to further determine whether there is an intermuscular relationship in maximal voluntary activation capacities and contractile kinetics of human muscles.
To investigate longitudinally (1) the contribution of morphological covariates to explaining the development of maximum cardiac output ([Formula: see text] max) and maximum arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO diff max), (2) sex differences in [Formula: see text] max and a-vO diff max once age, maturity status, and morphological covariates have been controlled for, and, (3) the contribution of concurrent changes in morphological and cardiovascular covariates to explaining the sex-specific development of pe...
The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of balance control in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.
Children thermoregulate effectively during exercise despite sweating rate being consistently lower when compared with adults. The skin blood flow (SkBF) response of children to exercise is inconsistent, when compared with adults. We examined the SkBF response to exercise in children and adults, along with the potential contribution of nitric oxide to the SkBF response.
The present study compared three different intensity elbow flexor eccentric exercises resulting in the same magnitude of maximal voluntary isomeric contraction torque (MVC) decrease at 1 day post-exercise for changes in several indirect markers of muscle damage and proprioception.
To examine the relationship between changes in nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in acutely and chronically exercised human skeletal muscle.
The effect of hyperglycaemia with and without additional insulin was explored at a low and high intensity of exercise (40% vs 70% VO) on glucose utilization (GUR), carbohydrate oxidation, non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD), and muscle glycogen.
To examine the suitability of three versions and two levels of the Yo-Yo intermittent tests for assessing and tracking aerobic fitness status development in male recreational football players. Sixty-six untrained participants (age 39 ± 6 years, VO 41.2 ± 6.2 ml kg min, body mass 81.9 ± 10.8 kg, height 173.2 ± 6.4 cm) partook in a 12-week recreational football training program. They were evaluated during the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 1 (YYIE1) and 2 (YYIE2) tests and the Yo...
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) regulates lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase activity and stimulating lipolysis in adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to find out whether the mountain ultra-marathon running influences plasma ANGPTL4 and whether it is related to plasma lipid changes.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can reduce acute and chronic pain. Unilateral fatigue can produce discomfort in the affected limb and force and activation deficits in contralateral non-exercised muscles. TENS-induced local pain analgesia effects on non-local fatigue performance are unknown. Hence, the aim of the study was to determine if TENS-induced pain suppression would augment force output during a fatiguing protocol in the treated and contralateral muscles.
We aimed to investigate if hereditary factors, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and metabolic health interact with resting fat oxidation (RFO) and peak fat oxidation (PFO) during ergometer cycling.
The heart rate method, based on the linear relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake, is potentially valuable to monitor intensity levels of physical activities. However, this depends not least on its reproducibility under standard conditions. This study aims, therefore, to evaluate the reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory using a range of heart rates associated with walking commuting.
The aim of the present study was to examine the frequency effects (20 Hz and 100 Hz) on neuromuscular fatigue using stimulation parameters favoring an indirect motor unit recruitment through the afferent pathway.
Based on the strong linear relationship between heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption, the Åstrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer test (Astrand and Ryhming in J Appl Physiol 7:218-221, 1954) is a widely used submaximal test to predict whole body maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]). However, a similar test predicting peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) in the upper extremities is not established, and may be very useful for individuals unable to use their lower extremities or/and if separati...
Serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentration is increased following static apnoea-induced hypoxia. However, the acute erythropoietic responses to a series of dynamic apnoeas in non-divers (ND) or elite breath-hold divers (EBHD) are unknown.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of maturation on the etiology of neuromuscular fatigue induced by repeated maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC).
The aim of the study was to provide an evaluation of the oxygen transport, exchange and storage capacity of elite breath-hold divers (EBHD) compared with non-divers (ND).
There are suggestions that isometric resistance training (RT) produces highly angle-specific changes in strength with the greatest changes at the training angle, but these effects remain controversial with limited rigorous evidence, and the possible underpinning physiological mechanism(s) remain opaque. This study investigated the extent of angle-specific changes in strength and neuromuscular activation after RT in comparison to a control group.
With accelerometry, the utility to detect changes in physical activity are predicated on the assumption that walking energetics and gait mechanics do not change. The present work examined associations between changes (∆) in walking energetics, exercise self-efficacy, and several accelerometer-derived metrics.