PubMed Journal Database | European journal of applied physiology RSS

22:43 EST 16th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 188 from European journal of applied physiology

Ultrasound speckle tracking of Achilles tendon in individuals with unilateral tendinopathy: a pilot study.

Differential displacement between tendon layers has been shown to occur within the healthy Achilles tendon, and changes of this mechanism have been proposed to result in shear forces, which potentially could lead to tendinopathy. The magnitude of displacement between the tendon layers in tendinopathy is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate Achilles tendon layer displacement in individuals suffering from unilateral tendinopathy compared with the asymptomatic contralateral side.

Tracking the corticospinal responses to strength training.

The motor cortex (M1) appears to be a primary site of adaptation following both a single session, and repeated strength-training sessions across multiple weeks. Given that a single session of strength-training is sufficient to induce modification at the level of the M1 and corticospinal tract, this study sought to determine how these acute changes in M1 and corticospinal tract might accumulate across the course of a 2-week heavy-load strength-training program.

UBC-Nepal expedition: dynamic cerebral autoregulation is attenuated in lowlanders upon ascent to 5050 m.

We examined the effects of hypoxaemia on dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in lowlanders and Sherpa highlanders. We hypothesized that dCA in lowlanders would be reduced to a greater extent in the common carotid artery (CCA) compared to the internal carotid artery (ICA) during acute hypoxia at sea level and at high altitude, whereas Sherpa highlanders would have preserved dCA upon ascent to high altitude.

Effect of seat tube angle and crank arm length on metabolic and neuromuscular responses and lower extremity joint kinematics during pedaling with a relatively lower seat height.

The effects of the seat tube angle and crank arm length on metabolic responses, neuromuscular activation, and lower extremity joint kinematics were investigated during bicycling with a relatively lower seat height usually used for daily life.

Lunge exercises with blood-flow restriction induces post-activation potentiation and improves vertical jump performance.

This study examined the post-activation potentiation effects of body-weight lunge exercises with blood-flow restriction on jump performance. Eighteen anaerobically trained men took part in this study across 3 weeks.

Reliability and validity of methods in the assessment of cold-induced shivering thermogenesis.

To compare two analytical methods for the estimation of the shivering onset inflection point, segmental regression and visual inspection of data, and to assess the test-retest reliability and validity of four metrics of shivering measurement; oxygen uptake (V̇O), electromyography (EMG), mechanomyography (MMG) and bedside shivering assessment scale (BSAS).

Is there an intermuscular relationship in voluntary activation capacities and contractile kinetics?

The force-generating capacities of human skeletal muscles are interrelated, highlighting a common construct of limb strength. This study aimed to further determine whether there is an intermuscular relationship in maximal voluntary activation capacities and contractile kinetics of human muscles.

Multilevel allometric modelling of maximum cardiac output, maximum arteriovenous oxygen difference, and peak oxygen uptake in 11-13-year-olds.

To investigate longitudinally (1) the contribution of morphological covariates to explaining the development of maximum cardiac output ([Formula: see text] max) and maximum arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO diff max), (2) sex differences in [Formula: see text] max and a-vO diff max once age, maturity status, and morphological covariates have been controlled for, and, (3) the contribution of concurrent changes in morphological and cardiovascular covariates to explaining the sex-specific development of pe...

Role of a single session of ball throwing exercise on postural control in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of balance control in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

The skin blood flow response to exercise in boys and men and the role of nitric oxide.

Children thermoregulate effectively during exercise despite sweating rate being consistently lower when compared with adults. The skin blood flow (SkBF) response of children to exercise is inconsistent, when compared with adults. We examined the SkBF response to exercise in children and adults, along with the potential contribution of nitric oxide to the SkBF response.

Comparison among three different intensities of eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors resulting in the same strength loss at one day post-exercise for changes in indirect muscle damage markers.

The present study compared three different intensity elbow flexor eccentric exercises resulting in the same magnitude of maximal voluntary isomeric contraction torque (MVC) decrease at 1 day post-exercise for changes in several indirect markers of muscle damage and proprioception.

The impact of acute and chronic exercise on Nrf2 expression in relation to markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle.

To examine the relationship between changes in nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in acutely and chronically exercised human skeletal muscle.

Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia promote glucose utilization and storage during low- and high-intensity exercise.

The effect of hyperglycaemia with and without additional insulin was explored at a low and high intensity of exercise (40% vs 70% VO) on glucose utilization (GUR), carbohydrate oxidation, non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD), and muscle glycogen.

Yo-Yo intermittent tests are a valid tool for aerobic fitness assessment in recreational football.

To examine the suitability of three versions and two levels of the Yo-Yo intermittent tests for assessing and tracking aerobic fitness status development in male recreational football players. Sixty-six untrained participants (age 39 ± 6 years, VO 41.2 ± 6.2 ml kg min, body mass 81.9 ± 10.8 kg, height 173.2 ± 6.4 cm) partook in a 12-week recreational football training program. They were evaluated during the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 1 (YYIE1) and 2 (YYIE2) tests and the Yo...

Effect of mountain ultra-marathon running on plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 and lipid profile in healthy trained men.

Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) regulates lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase activity and stimulating lipolysis in adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to find out whether the mountain ultra-marathon running influences plasma ANGPTL4 and whether it is related to plasma lipid changes.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation improves fatigue performance of the treated and contralateral knee extensors.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can reduce acute and chronic pain. Unilateral fatigue can produce discomfort in the affected limb and force and activation deficits in contralateral non-exercised muscles. TENS-induced local pain analgesia effects on non-local fatigue performance are unknown. Hence, the aim of the study was to determine if TENS-induced pain suppression would augment force output during a fatiguing protocol in the treated and contralateral muscles.

Fat oxidation at rest and during exercise in male monozygotic twins.

We aimed to investigate if hereditary factors, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and metabolic health interact with resting fat oxidation (RFO) and peak fat oxidation (PFO) during ergometer cycling.

The heart rate method for estimating oxygen uptake: analyses of reproducibility using a range of heart rates from commuter walking.

The heart rate method, based on the linear relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake, is potentially valuable to monitor intensity levels of physical activities. However, this depends not least on its reproducibility under standard conditions. This study aims, therefore, to evaluate the reproducibility of the heart rate method in the laboratory using a range of heart rates associated with walking commuting.

Impact of stimulation frequency on neuromuscular fatigue.

The aim of the present study was to examine the frequency effects (20 Hz and 100 Hz) on neuromuscular fatigue using stimulation parameters favoring an indirect motor unit recruitment through the afferent pathway.

Prediction of upper extremity peak oxygen consumption from heart rate during submaximal arm cycling in young and middle-aged adults.

Based on the strong linear relationship between heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption, the Åstrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer test (Astrand and Ryhming in J Appl Physiol 7:218-221, 1954) is a widely used submaximal test to predict whole body maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]). However, a similar test predicting peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) in the upper extremities is not established, and may be very useful for individuals unable to use their lower extremities or/and if separati...

Erythropoietic responses to a series of repeated maximal dynamic and static apnoeas in elite and non-breath-hold divers.

Serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentration is increased following static apnoea-induced hypoxia. However, the acute erythropoietic responses to a series of dynamic apnoeas in non-divers (ND) or elite breath-hold divers (EBHD) are unknown.

Maturation-related changes in the development and etiology of neuromuscular fatigue.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of maturation on the etiology of neuromuscular fatigue induced by repeated maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC).

Skeletal muscle, haematological and splenic volume characteristics of elite breath-hold divers.

The aim of the study was to provide an evaluation of the oxygen transport, exchange and storage capacity of elite breath-hold divers (EBHD) compared with non-divers (ND).

Is the joint-angle specificity of isometric resistance training real? And if so, does it have a neural basis?

There are suggestions that isometric resistance training (RT) produces highly angle-specific changes in strength with the greatest changes at the training angle, but these effects remain controversial with limited rigorous evidence, and the possible underpinning physiological mechanism(s) remain opaque. This study investigated the extent of angle-specific changes in strength and neuromuscular activation after RT in comparison to a control group.

Inverse association between changes in energetic cost of walking and vertical accelerations in non-metastatic breast cancer survivors.

With accelerometry, the utility to detect changes in physical activity are predicated on the assumption that walking energetics and gait mechanics do not change. The present work examined associations between changes (∆) in walking energetics, exercise self-efficacy, and several accelerometer-derived metrics.

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