PubMed Journal Database | European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics RSS

00:42 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 47 from European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics

Comparative Evaluation of Median Versus Youden Index Dichotomization Methods: Exposure-Response Analysis of Mycophenolic Acid and Acyl-Glucuronide Metabolite.

Dichotomization of pharmacokinetic exposure measures in exposure-response relationship studies provides results that are interpretable in clinical care. Several methods exist in the literature on how to define the cut-off values needed for the dichotomization process. Commonly, the sample median is utilized to define the dichotomizing value; however, statistical methods based on the exposure metric and its association with the outcome are argued to result in a more proper definition of the optimal cut-point...

Pharmacokinetics of the Novel Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Finerenone (BAY 94-8862) in Individuals with Mild or Moderate Hepatic Impairment.

Finerenone (BAY 94-8862) is a selective, nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of mild or moderate hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of finerenone.

Inhibitory Mechanisms of Myricetin on Human and Rat Liver Cytochrome P450 Enzymes.

Myricetin is a flavonoid compound that is abundant in teas, red wine, berries, herbs and vegetables with a variety of pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Although there are in vitro studies showing that myricetin inhibits human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP3A, the inhibitory mechanisms of myricetin on CYP enzymes are still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of myricetin on human and rat CYPs, including CYP3A2/3A4...

Enhancing Curcumin Oral Bioavailability Through Nanoformulations.

Curcumin is a promising therapeutic agent that exhibits manifold therapeutic activities. However, it is challenging to study curcumin as it exhibits poor aqueous solubility and low permeability and it is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp). It is readily metabolized in the body, but many active metabolites of curcumin have been identified that could also be exploited for therapy. Strategies for the oral bioenhancement of curcumin to leverage the potential of curcumin as a therapeutic molecule are discuss...

Tacrolimus Variability: A Cause of Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibody Formation in Children.

The most important determinant of long-term graft survival in renal transplantation is adequate immunosuppression. Inadequate immunosuppression may lead to graft loss due to the presence of anti-HLA antibody. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variability in tacrolimus blood concentration on anti-HLA antibody development in pediatric recipients of living-donor renal transplants.

In-Vivo Degradation of DNA-Based Therapeutic BC 007 in Humans.

Since there is no clear evidence in the literature to show how non-modified single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) drugs are metabolized in humans, we assessed the metabolism of BC 007, an ssDNA therapeutic, under development as a neutralizer of autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors. In-vitro, investigating its stability in monkey plasma and serum, a successive 3'-exonuclease degradation resulting in several n-x degradation products has been previously reported. Here, we investigated the metabolism of BC ...

Correction to: Effects of Phenothiazines on Aldehyde Oxidase Activity Towards Aldehydes and N-Heterocycles: an In Vitro and In Silico Study.

Unfortunately, the original article was published with error in author names. The author names are corrected here by this correction paper. The original article has been corrected.

Conversion from Twice-Daily Prograf to Once-Daily Advagraf in Multi-ethnic Asian Adult Renal Transplant Recipients With or Without Concomitant Use of Diltiazem: Impact of CYP3A5 and MDR1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Tacrolimus Exposure.

Tacrolimus is the mainstay of immunosuppression in renal transplantation. Given that once-daily administration improves patient compliance, 1:1 dose conversion from twice-daily Prograf to once-daily Advagraf is recommended. Although cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 and multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) polymorphisms influence tacrolimus concentrations, it is unknown if these impact on conversion. This study investigated the change in the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus after conversion from Prograf to Advagraf and exa...

Pharmacokinetics Comparison, Intestinal Absorption and Acute Toxicity Assessment of a Novel Water-Soluble Astragaloside IV Derivative (Astragalosidic Acid, LS-102).

Astragaloside IV (AGS IV) is the most important bioactive constituent of Radix Astragali. However, its disappointing clinical application is mainly caused by its very low solubility in biologic fluids, resulting in poor bioavailability after oral administration. We recently obtained a novel water-soluble derivative of AGS IV (astragalosidic acid, LS-102) that displayed significant cardioprotective potential against hypoxia-induced injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorpt...

Bayesian Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Eltrombopag in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients.

Eltrombopag is a thrombopoietic growth factor that is approved for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. We aimed to describe eltrombopag population pharmacokinetics in hepatitis C patients. Bayesian statistical approach will be applied to screen for patients' characteristics associated with eltrombopag pharmacokinetic parameters.

Pharmacokinetics of Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir in Healthy Chinese Subjects and HCV GT1b-Infected Chinese, South Korean and Taiwanese Patients.

The 3 direct-acting antiviral (3D) regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus dasabuvir has recently been approved in several Asian geographic regions for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 1 infection. The pharmacokinetics of the components of the 3D regimen with or without ribavirin were evaluated in healthy Chinese subjects and HCV GT1b-infected Chinese, South Korean, and Taiwanese patients, with or without cirrhosis, to determine how the drug exposures in Asian populations com...

Potential Influence of Centrally Acting Herbal Drugs on Transporters at the Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier and Blood-Brain Barrier.

Complementary and alternative medications (CAM) with known or suspected pharmacologic activity in the central nervous system (CNS) are common. These herbal preparations may cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) when coadministered with medications that act in the CNS. This can result in negative outcomes such as toxicity or loss of efficacy. Most drug interaction reports with CAM focus on cytochrome P450 (CYP) modulation. However, drug interactions between CAM and conventional medicatio...

Pharmacokinetics of the Novel, Selective, Non-steroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Finerenone in Healthy Volunteers: Results from an Absolute Bioavailability Study and Drug-Drug Interaction Studies In Vitro and In Vivo.

Finerenone is a selective, non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to assess absolute bioavailability of finerenone, the effect of metabolic enzyme inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of finerenone and its metabolites, the quantitative contribution of the involved enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C8 and the relevance of gut wall versus liver metabolism.

Effect of Multiple Doses of Omeprazole on the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Roxadustat in Healthy Subjects.

Roxadustat is an orally active hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor for the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease. This study investigated the effect of multiple daily oral doses of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of a single oral dose of roxadustat.

Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Butylidenephthalide and Alisol B in Danggui-Shaoyao-San in Rats.

Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), a famous Chinese formula, has been widely used to treat gynecological disorders since ancient times and has recently showed efficacy in treating Alzheimer's disease. Butylidenephthalide (BDPH) and alisol B (ALI) are recognized as the primary active ingredients of DSS. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetic comparative study of BDPH and ALI in herbal extracts and their purified forms.

Impact of the CYP3A5*1 Allele on the Pharmacokinetics of Tacrolimus in Japanese Heart Transplant Patients.

Tacrolimus, a major immunosuppressant used after transplantation, is associated with large interindividual variation involving genetic polymorphisms in metabolic processes. A common variant of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 gene, CYP3A5*3, affects blood concentrations of tacrolimus. However, tacrolimus pharmacokinetics at the early stage of transplantation have not been adequately studied in heart transplantation. We retrospectively examined the impact of the CYP3A5 genotype on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics at...

The Underrated Risks of Tamoxifen Drug Interactions.

Tamoxifen is a prodrug, and most of the therapeutic effect in treating breast cancer stems from its metabolite, endoxifen. Since cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is the most important enzyme in the production of endoxifen, drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 would be expected to reduce tamoxifen efficacy. In addition to drug-drug interactions (DDI) involving CYP2D6, there is growing evidence that enzyme inducers can substantially alter the disposition of endoxifen, reducing tamoxifen efficacy. Although the clinical evidenc...

Effects of Ketoconazole and Rifampicin on the Pharmacokinetics of Nintedanib in Healthy Subjects.

Nintedanib is a substrate for p-glycoprotein which can impact bioavailability. We investigated the effects of ketoconazole, a p-glycoprotein inhibitor, and rifampicin, a p-glycoprotein inducer, on the pharmacokinetics of nintedanib.

Prediction of Human Pharmacokinetics of Ulixertinib, a Novel ERK1/2 Inhibitor from Mice, Rats, and Dogs Pharmacokinetics.

Ulixertinib (BVD-523) is a novel and selective reversible inhibitor of ERK1/ERK2. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ulixertinib in mice, rats, and dogs followed by prediction of human pharmacokinetic profile by allometric equations with/without correction factors.

Drug Delivery and Transport into the Central Circulation: An Example of Zero-Order In vivo Absorption of Rotigotine from a Transdermal Patch Formulation.

Pharmacokinetic studies using deconvolution methods and non-compartmental analysis to model clinical absorption of drugs are not well represented in the literature. The purpose of this research was (1) to define the system of equations for description of rotigotine (a dopamine receptor agonist delivered via a transdermal patch) absorption based on a pharmacokinetic model and (2) to describe the kinetics of rotigotine disposition after single and multiple dosing.

A Simultaneous Mixed-Effects Pharmacokinetic Model for Nefopam, N-desmethylnefopam, and Nefopam N-Oxide in Human Plasma and Urine.

Nefopam is a non-opioid, non-steroidal, central analgesic thought to act via multiple mechanisms including potent inhibition of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake and modulation of voltage-sensitive calcium and sodium channels. There has been a resurgence in its use for postoperative pain and neuropathic pain. Dosing route-dependent metabolism and clinical effects have been described following intravenous and oral nefopam. N-desmethylnefopam and nefopam N-oxide are metabolites of clinical interest. We sought...

Correction to: Continuous Infusion Versus Intermittent Bolus of Beta-Lactams in Critically Ill Patients with Respiratory Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Unfortunately, ≥ was found missing between scores and 20 in conclusion section of the online published article. The original article was corrected.

A Review of the Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Isavuconazole.

Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially for immunocompromised patients. Treatment options are few and most are limited by safety and formulation concerns. Isavuconazole is a new triazole antifungal agent with official indications for the treatment of invasive fungal infections caused by Aspergillus and Mucormycosis. Its clinical efficacy has been proven in two landmark trials, SECURE and VITAL. This review aims to summarize and evaluate the published literature re...

Pharmacokinetic Study of Piracetam in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rats.

Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke.

Pharmacokinetics of Panax notoginseng Saponins in Adhesive and Normal Preparation of Fufang Danshen.

Fufang Danshen formula, a famous Chinese patent medicine containing Salvia miltiorrhiza, Panax notoginseng and borneol, has been widely used in the treatment of coronary heart disease. The application is restricted by low bioavailability partly due to Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) instability and low in vivo absorption. Thus, adhesive pellets were developed to improve bioavailability. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the adhesive preparation by describing PNS's plasma pharmacokinetics...

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