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PubMed Journal Database | European journal of immunology RSS

18:36 EDT 16th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 218 from European journal of immunology

Inosine pranobex enhances human NK cell cytotoxicity by inducing metabolic activation and NKG2D ligand expression.

Inosine pranobex (IP) is a synthetic immunomodulating compound, indicated for use in the treatment of human papillomavirus-associated warts and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Previous studies demonstrate that the immunomodulatory activity of IP is characterized by enhanced lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and NK cell cytotoxicity. The activation of NKG2D signalling on NK cells, CD8+ T cells and γδ T cells also produces these outcomes. We hypothesized that IP alters cellular immunity th...

Diet-induced microbial autofluorescence confounds flow cytometry of ex vivo isolated fecal microbes.

Microbial flow cytometry is a powerful emerging technology with a broad range of applications including the study of complex microbial communities. Immunologists are increasingly using this technology to study antibody responses against pathogenic and commensal microbes. We employed microbial flow cytometry to quantify the proportion of fecal microbes bound by six different immunoglobulin isotypes: IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2b, IgG2c, and IgG3. In healthy mammals, secretory IgA (sIgA) binds to a subset of commensa...

Pannexin-1 promotes NLRP3 activation during apoptosis but is dispensable for canonical or Non-canonical inflammasome activation.

Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complex that assemble in the cytosol upon microbial infection or cellular stress. Upon activation, inflammasomes drive the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, and also activate the pore-forming protein gasdermin D to initiate a form of lytic cell death known as 'pyroptosis'. Pannexin-1 is channel-forming glycoprotein that promotes membrane permeability and ATP release during apoptosis; and was implicated in canonical NLRP3 or non-canon...

MicroRNA 182 promotes T helper 1 cell by Repressing Hypoxia Induced Factor 1 alpha in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

MicroRNA 182 is important for the clonal expansion of CD4 T cells (Th) following IL-2 stimulation and is a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNA 182 in the differentiation of pro-inflammatory CD4 T helper cell by overexpressing or silencing microRNA 182 expression both in in vivo and in vitro settings. We report that in the studied Chinese cohort, microRNA 182 is upregulated in patients with relapse and remitting multiple sclerosis (...

Measuring the T-cell down-regulation of TCR-zeta, ZAP-70 and CD28 in arthritis patients: An old tool for new biomarkers.

Low T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD28 signaling lymphocytes are expanded in arthritis. We asked whether the down-expression of TCR-related molecules correlates with specific arthritis characteristics and if it has clinical implications. TCR-ZETA, ZAP-70 and CD28 expression was measured by flow cytometry in synovial fluid (SF) and peripheral blood (PB)-derived T cells. In PB, ZETA-downregulation in CD4+CD28+ and consequent CD4+CD28lowZETAlow cell expansion correlate with CRP increase, leukocyte recruitment into SF ...

Mitochondrial functionality and metabolism in T cells from progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

Patients with primary progressive (PP) and secondary progressive (SP) forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibit a sustained increase in the number of Th1, T cytotoxic type-1 and Th17 cells in peripheral blood, suggesting that the progressive phase is characterized by a permanent peripheral immune activation. As T cell functionality and activation are strictly connected to their metabolic profile, we investigated the mitochondrial functionality and metabolic changes of T cell subpopulations in a cohort of pro...

Impressum.

Kosovo: A bridge between East and West, as well as IUIS and EAACI.

CD200R1 regulates eosinophilia during pulmonary fungal infection in mice.

CD200 receptor 1(CD200R1) signalling limits myeloid cell responses and reduces autoimmunity, alloimmunity and viral-mediated immunopathology, but has never been examined in the context of eosinophilic inflammation. Susceptibility to lung fungal infection is associated with T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokine dominated responses and strong eosinophilic pathology. Blockade of CD200R1 enhances type I cytokine responses in many infectious and non-infectious settings and so may promote a more protective response to fungal...

Increased ILC3s associated with higher levels of IL-1β aggravates inflammatory arthritis in mice lacking phagocytic NADPH oxidase.

The role of redox regulation in immune-mediated arthritis has been previously described. However, the relationship between innate immune cells, including innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and phagocyte-derived ROS, in this process remains unclear. Here, we characterize ILCs and measure the IL-1 family cytokines along with other cytokines relevant to ILC functions and development in serum-induced arthritic joints in wild type and phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX2)-deficient Ncf1 mice. We found more severe serum-indu...

Monomer hapten and hapten-specific IgG inhibit mast cell activation evoked by multivalent hapten with different mechanisms.

Aggregation of IgE bound to high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) by multivalent antigen induces mast cell activation. Reportedly, disaggregation of aggregated FcεRI immediately terminated degranulation, and formation of co-ligated FcεRI and low affinity IgG receptor FcγRIIB blocked degranulation by inhibitory signal via SH2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) phosphorylation. However, their molecular mechanisms to inhibit mast cell activation have been unclear in detail. Herein, we found that add...

Peripheral neurons: master regulators of skin and mucosal immune response.

The body is innervated by a meshwork of heterogeneous peripheral neurons (including sensory neurons) which project virtually to all the organs. Peripheral neurons have been studied extensively in the context of their primary function of initiation of voluntary and involuntary movement, transmission of sensations and induction of appropriate behavioral response such as withdrawal to avoid tissue injury or scratching to remove irritating molecules. More recently, breakthrough articles have shown that, on top ...

Statins can suppress dendritic cell-mediated Th2 responses through the repression of OX40-ligand and CCL17 expression.

Dendritic cells (DCs) and epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) have pivotal roles in allergic inflammation. TSLP stimulates myeloid DCs to express OX40-ligand (OX40L) and CCL17, which trigger and maintain Th2 cell responses. We have previously shown that statins, which are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, have the ability to suppress type I interferon production by plasmacytoid DCs. Here, we extended our previous work to examine the immunomodulatory effect of statins on allergic response...

Tissue specific production of MicroRNA-155 inhibits melanocortin 5 receptor dependent suppressor macrophages to promote experimental autoimmune uveitis.

Tissue specific immune regulation is an important component of the immune response relevant to many areas of immunology. The focus of this study is on tissue specific mechanisms that contribute to autoimmune uveitis. Precise gene regulation is necessary for the proper expression of an inflammatory or regulatory response. This precision gene regulation can be accomplished by microRNA at the level of the mRNA transcript. miR-155 in particular has a complicated role in the immune response with positive and neg...

Multifunctional cytokine production reveals functional superiority of memory CD4 T cells.

T cell protective immunity is associated with multifunctional memory cells that produce several different cytokines. Currently, our understanding of when and how these cells are generated is limited. We have used an influenza virus mouse infection model to investigate whether the cytokine profile of memory T cells is reflective of primary responding cells or skewed towards a distinct profile. We found that, in comparison to primary cells, memory T cells tended to make multiple cytokines simultaneously. Anal...

Type I interferons provide additive signals for murine regulatory B cell induction by Schistosoma mansoni eggs.

The helminth Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) induces a network of regulatory immune cells, including interleukin (IL)-10-producing regulatory B (Breg) cells. However, the signals required for the development and activation of Breg cells are not well characterized. Recent reports suggest that helminths induce type I interferons (IFN-I), and that IFN-I drives the development of Breg cells in humans. We therefore assessed the role of IFN-I in the induction of Breg cells by S. mansoni. Mice chronically infecte...

SIRPα Dendritic Cells Promote the Development of Fibroblastic Reticular Cells in Murine Peripheral Lymph Nodes.

Nonhematopoietic stromal cells contribute to the organization and homeostasis of secondary lymphoid organs by producing cytokines and chemokines. The development and maintenance of these stromal cells are thought to be regulated by innate immune cells. Indeed, we recently showed that signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα)-positive dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the proliferation and survival of podoplanin (Pdpn)-positive fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) in mouse spleen. We have now established an...

TCR-induced alteration of primary MHC peptide anchor residue.

The HLA-A*02:01-restricted decapeptide EAAGIGILTV, derived from Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T-cells-1 (MART-1) protein, represents one of the best-studied tumor associated T-cell epitopes, but clinical results targeting this peptide have been disappointing. This limitation may reflect the dominance of the nonapeptide, AAGIGILTV, at the melanoma cell surface. The decapeptide and nonapeptides are presented in distinct conformations by HLA-A*02:01 and TCRs from clinically relevant T-cell clones recognize th...

Two sequential layers of antibody-mediated control of Legionella pneumophila infection.

Protective immunity against intracellular pathogens, including bacteria, usually relies on cellular immunity. However, antibodies are also implicated in mediating protection against intracellular bacteria. In case of airway infection with Legionella pneumophila (Lpn), the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, pre-existing Lpn-specific antibodies were shown to afford protection within two days of infection. Here we dissected the early kinetics of Ab-mediated protection against airway Lpn infection and ob...

Essential role of IκB for in vivo CD4 T cell activation, proliferation and Th1 cell differentiation during Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice.

Acquisition of effector functions in T cells is guided by transcription factors including NF-κB that itself is tightly controlled by inhibitory proteins. The atypical NF-κB inhibitor IκB is involved in the development of Th1, Th17 and Treg cells. However, it remained unclear to which extend IκB contributes to the acquisition of effector function in T cells specifically responding to a pathogen during in vivo infection. Tracking of adoptively transferred T cells in Listeria monocytogenes infected mice un...

IL-10-producing B cells are characterized by a specific methylation signature.

Among the family of regulatory B cells, the subset able to produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) is the most studied, yet its biology is still a matter of investigation. The DNA methylation profiling of the il-10 gene locus revealed a novel epigenetic signature characterizing murine B cells ready to respond through IL-10 synthesis: a demethylated region located 4.5 kb from the transcription starting site (TSS), that we named early IL10 regulatory region (eIL10rr). This feature allows to distinguish B cells that ar...

High-throughput single-cell sequencing of paired TCRα and TCRβ genes for the direct expression-cloning and functional analysis of murine T cell receptors.

Precise clonal and functional assessments of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity require paired TCRα and TCRβ gene sequence information at monoclonal level. However, available single-cell strategies are typically limited in throughput and often do not provide full-length DNA templates for direct gene cloning. Here, we describe a high-throughput strategy for the unbiased amplification and automated sequence analysis of paired TCRα and TCRβ genes from primary mouse T cells. The platform links c...

Tissue resident T cell memory or how the magnificent seven are chilling in the bone.

Following infection, tissue resident memory T cells (Trm) are thought to be left behind at sites of antigen encounter to protect affected tissues against subsequent reinfection. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, however, Pascutti et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2019. 49: XXXX-XXXX] demonstrate that both murine and human CD8 Trm specific to seven different pathogens, including systemic, skin and lung tissue-localized pathogens, accumulate in the bone marrow. These cells have a CD69 phenotype, de...

Impressum.

How to Predict Adverse Immune Reactions to Implantable Biomaterials?: Horizon 2020 PANBioRA project - Development of an integrated biomaterial risk assessment testing system.


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