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PubMed Journal Database | Experimental brain research RSS

04:16 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 193 from Experimental brain research

Preparation to a quick whole-body action: control with referent body orientation and multi-muscle synergies.

We examined the control of postural stability in preparation to a discrete, quick whole-body sway toward a target and back to the initial position. Several predictions were tested based on the theory of control with referent body orientation and the notion of multi-muscle synergies stabilizing center of pressure (COP) coordinate. Healthy, young adults performed fast, discrete whole-body motion forward-and-back and backward-and-back under visual feedback on the COP. We used two methods to assess COP stabilit...

The use of motor imagery training to retain the performance improvement following physical practice in the elderly.

With physiological aging, appears a deterioration of the ability to retain motor skills newly acquired. In this study, we tested the beneficial role of motor imagery training to compensate this deterioration. We tested four groups: young control group (n = 10), elderly control group (n = 10), young mental-training group (n = 13) and elderly mental-training group (n = 13). In pre- and post-tests, the participants performed three trials on a dexterity manual task (the Nine Hole Peg Test), comm...

Postural coordination and control to the precision demands of light finger touch.

We examine the proposition that information availability and postural facilitation-usually viewed as opposing views in postural control-are intertwined with the effects of one being related to the other. If that is the case, a single control parameter (precision demands) would capture the changes in postural control relating information and postural facilitation. Using the dynamical systems approach, we investigated whether, manipulating touch requirements as to increase precision demands, would induce quan...

Gender differences in empathic responses to others' economic payoffs: an event-related potentials study.

Although gender differences in empathy have been well established through measuring subjective outcomes, some studies of the neural mechanisms of pain empathy have not found gender differences. This inconsistent evidence may be caused by different research methods or different paradigms. The present study adopted a different approach from the pain empathy paradigm to examine gender differences in empathic responses to others' economic payoffs using event-related potentials. The results showed that the N2 am...

New information on the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on n-back task performance.

The n-back task is prototypical tool widely used to evaluate working memory (WM) abilities in healthy and clinical populations. Previous studies finding beneficial effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on n-back task performance were limited by the number of n-back "memory loads" utilized and the assessment of performance only immediately following stimulation. Our aims were to investigate both the immediate and lasting effects of six ses...

Differential influence of habitual third-person vision of a body part on mental rotation of images of hands and feet.

Left/right judgement (LRJ) tasks involve determining the laterality of presented hand or feet images. Allocentric images (third-person perspective; 3PP) take longer to identify than egocentric images (first-person perspective; 1PP), supporting that implicit motor imagery (IMI)-mentally manoeuvring one's body to match the shown posture-is used. While numerous cognitive processes are involved during LRJs, it remains unclear whether features of the individual (e.g., visual exposure, experience, task-dependent ...

Quadriceps muscle function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: systemic differences in neural and morphological characteristics.

Quadriceps muscle dysfunction is common following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Data considering the diversity of neural changes, in-concert with morphological adaptations of the quadriceps muscle, are lacking. We investigated bilateral differences in neural and morphological characteristics of the quadriceps muscle in ACLR participants (n = 11, month post-surgery: 69.4 ± 22.4) compared to controls matched by sex, age, height, weight, limb dominance, and activity level. Spinal r...

Synchronising to a frequency while estimating time of vibro-tactile stimuli.

It is well known that subjective time perception can be modified by the emotional experience related to a specific event, by pharmaceutical compounds or by sensory stimuli. As for the latter, visual and auditory stimuli have been widely studied compared to tactile ones. Two experiments were conducted using different vibratory frequencies to stimulate participants who were asked to reproduce stimulus duration. Experiment 1 compared differences in reproduced times for 8-s stimuli ranging between 0.5 and 6 Hz...

Some binocular advantages for planning reach, but not grasp, components of prehension.

Proficient (fast, accurate, precise) hand actions for reaching-to-grasp 3D objects are known to benefit significantly from the use of binocular vision compared to one eye alone. We examined whether these binocular advantages derive from increased reliability in encoding the goal object's properties for feedforward planning of prehension movements or from enhanced feedback mediating their online control. Adult participants reached for, precision grasped and lifted cylindrical table-top objects (two sizes, 2 ...

I just lost it! Fear and anger reduce the sense of agency: a study using intentional binding.

Two recent studies have demonstrated that increases in arousal states lead to an increase people's sense of agency, i.e., the subjective experience of controlling one's own voluntary actions (Minohara et al. in Front Psychol 7:1165, 2016; Wen et al. in Conscious Cogn 36:87-95, 2015). We here extend these findings by showing that arousal states with negative emotional valence, such as fear and anger, decrease sense of agency. Anger and fear are negative emotional states. Anecdotally, they are often invoked a...

Ecological validity of manual grasping movements in an everyday-like grocery shopping task.

In our earlier research, kinematic and kinetic parameters of grasping differed significantly when participants grasped the same object once in a traditional laboratory paradigm, and once as part of a captivating computer game. We attributed this finding to the fact that grasping movements in the laboratory were repetitive and meaningless, while those in the computer game were embedded in complex behavior and served a meaningful purpose. In that work, we argued that grasping in the computer game is more char...

Electrocorticographic changes in field potentials following natural somatosensory percepts in humans.

Restoration of somatosensory deficits in humans requires a clear understanding of the neural representations of percepts. To characterize the cortical response to naturalistic somatosensation, we examined field potentials in the primary somatosensory cortex of humans.

Bimodal-divided attention attenuates visually induced inhibition of return with audiovisual targets.

Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the slower response to a target appearing at a previously attended location in a cue-target paradigm. It has been greatly explored in the visual or auditory modality. This study investigates differences between the IOR of audiovisual targets and the IOR of visual targets under conditions of modality-specific selective attention (Experiment 1) and divided-modalities attention (Experiment 2). We employed an exogenous spatial cueing paradigm and manipulated the modalities o...

Interlimb transfer and generalisation of learning in the context of persistent failure to accomplish a visuomotor task.

Transfer, in which capability acquired in one situation influences performance in another is considered, along with retention, as demonstrative of effectual learning. In this regard, interlimb transfer of functional capacity has commanded particular attention as a means of gauging the generalisation of acquired capability. Both theoretical treatments and prior empirical studies suggest that the successful accomplishment of a physical training regime is required to bring about generalised changes that extend...

Differential control of task and null space variability in response to changes in task difficulty when learning a bimanual steering task.

The presence of motor redundancy means that movement variability can be split into a 'task-space' component that affects task performance, and a 'null space' component which has no effect on task performance. While the control of task-space variability during learning is essential, because it is directly linked to performance, how the nervous system controls null space variability during learning has not been well understood. One factor that has been hypothesized to govern the change in null space variabili...

Multiple left-to-right spatial representations of number magnitudes? Evidence from left spatial neglect.

The SNARC effect reflects the observation that when healthy observers with left-to-right reading habits are asked to compare the magnitude or to judge the parity of numbers, they provide faster reaction times (RT) to small numbers with left-sided responses and faster RTs to large numbers with right-sided responses. In magnitude comparison (MC), right brain damaged patients with left-sided neglect typically show a pathologically enlarged SNARC for large numbers and selective slowing to numbers that are immed...

Spatial and feature-based attention to expressive faces.

Facial emotion is an important cue for deciding whether an individual is potentially helpful or harmful. However, facial expressions are inherently ambiguous and observers typically employ other cues to categorize emotion expressed on the face, such as race, sex, and context. Here, we explored the effect of increasing or reducing different types of uncertainty associated with a facial expression that is to be categorized. On each trial, observers responded according to the emotion and location of a peripher...

The Uznadze illusion reveals similar effects of relative size on perception and action.

Milner and Goodale (the visual brain in action, Oxford University Press Inc., Oxford, 1995) proposed a functional dissociation between vision-for-action and vision-for-perception (i.e., the "two-visual system hypothesis", TVSH). Supporting the TVSH, it has been claimed that visual illusions affect perception but not actions. However, at least for the Ebbinghaus illusion, numerous studies have revealed consistent illusion effects on grasping. Thus, whether illusions affect actions remains controversial. To f...

Non-linear effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex on implicit motor learning.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of 1 mA for 13 min was reported to create a linear inter-dependency between the intensity and duration of the current and the effects of the stimulation. tDCS on the primary motor cortex (M1) has been shown to have an effect on both motor-evoked potential (MEP) and motor learning. However, recent findings have shown that the known linear effect is invalid in a 2 mA stimulation for 20 min, where cathodal stimulation led to excitability, rather than inhibitio...

Effects of vibration on cutaneous silent period.

Suppression of an ongoing muscle contraction following noxious digital stimulation is called cutaneous silent period (CSP) which is under the influence of several physiological factors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of group Ia afferents on the cutaneous silent period (CSP) by applying 2-min vibration. CSP was obtained from abductor pollicis brevis muscle after stimulating index finger. The recordings were repeated three times-before, during and after vibration-which was applied over the...

Low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over prefrontal cortex in an animal model alters activity in the auditory thalamus but does not affect behavioural measures of tinnitus.

Tinnitus, a phantom auditory percept, is strongly associated with cochlear trauma. The latter leads to central changes in auditory pathways such as increased spontaneous activity and this may be involved in tinnitus generation. As not all people with cochlear trauma develop tinnitus, recent studies argue that non-auditory structures, such as prefrontal cortex (PFC), play an important role in tinnitus development. As part of sensory gating circuitry, PFC may modify activity in auditory thalamus and consequen...

Beyond rambling and trembling: effects of visual feedback on slow postural drift.

We explored one of the unusual predictions of the concept of back-coupling within the theoretical scheme of the control of posture and movement with setting referent coordinates for the effectors. This concept implies slow drifts of referent coordinates toward actual coordinates leading to unintentional drift in performance. During standing, such slow drifts may lead to a protective step or even a fall and, therefore, corrections are expected leading to body sway at frequencies under 0.1 Hz. Young healthy ...

Modulation of temporal resolution and speech long-latency auditory-evoked potentials by transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with dyslexia.

In recent years, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used as a safe and non-invasive method for children and adolescents with dyslexia. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of tDCS on variables of temporal resolution and speech long-latency auditory-evoked potentials with two electrode arrays on superior temporal gyrus (STG). A total of 17 children and adolescents with dyslexia (age 9-12 years) were included in our study. All participants underwent the gap in noise (GIN) ...

Corticospinal excitability is enhanced while preparing for complex movements.

Movement complexity is known to increase reaction time (RT). More recently, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex has revealed that movement complexity can alter corticospinal excitability. However, the impact of a sequential addition of movement components on corticospinal excitability during the preparatory phase of a simple RT task is unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine how motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the premotor period were affected by the complexity of a...

Change in effectivity yields recalibration of affordance geometry to preserve functional dynamics.

Mon-Williams and Bingham (Exp Brain Res 211(1):145-160, 2011) developed a geometrical affordance model for reaches-to-grasp, and identified a constant scaling relationship, P, between safety margins (SM) and available apertures (SM) that are determined by the sizes of the objects and the individual hands. Bingham et al. (J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 40(4):1542-1550, 2014) extended the model by introducing a dynamical component that scales the geometrical relationship to the stability of the reaching-to...


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