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PubMed Journal Database | Experimental parasitology RSS

18:58 EDT 19th July 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 229 from Experimental parasitology

T cell-mediated immunity in CBA mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

Characterisation of the cellular immune response to schistosomiasis is well established for Schistosoma mansoni but a comprehensive description of T cell-mediated immune responses against S. japonicum infection is lacking. Accordingly, 20 CBA mice were infected with cercariae of S. japonicum and the immune response at different time points was determined. Mouse spleen and liver lymphocytes were isolated from the mice and stimulated with schistosomal adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) and schistosomal sol...

Copper oxide and closantel prevent alterations in hepatic energetic metabolism and reduce inflammation in Haemonchus contortus infection.

The aims of this study were to evaluate if the use of copper oxide wire particles, isolated or in association with closantel, in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus enhances the anthelmintic efficacy of closantel, as well as to evaluate the effects of treatment in hepatic energy metabolism, inflammatory markers and hematological and biochemical tests. The lambs were randomly divided into five groups (6 animals each), as follows: uninfected animals (Control); animals infected with H. contortus (HC); inf...

Identification of candidate antigens by 2-DE Immunoblotting for diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens and rabbits.

Toxoplasmosis, caused by apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is a common food-borne disease in humans. Undercooked meat is a potential source of T. gondii infection. As meat of chicken or rabbit is consumed worldwide, tools such as ELISA for the detection of infection of this parasite in rabbits and chickens are much-needed. To search diagnostic antigens of T. gondii special for rabbits and chickens, we conducted two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), Western blotting and mass spectrometry (MS) with T...

Hormonal modulation of Toxoplasma gondii infection: Regulation of hormonal receptors and cytokine production in THP-1 cells.

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan able to infect humans and it is common in pregnant women. During pregnancy and lactation, there are changes in the concentration of 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (Prg), and prolactin (PRL). It is known that a proinflamatory response reduces the susceptibility to be infected, and this response may change according to hormonal impairment. Monocytes and macrophages are the main barrier against many intracellular microorganisms, due to the...

Cardiac involvement in trypanosomiasis in sheep experimentally infected by Trypanosoma vivax (Ziemman, 1905).

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical signs, electrocardiographic signs and evolution of histopathological lesions in the heart of sheep experimentally infected by Trypanosoma vivax during the acute and chronic phases of infection as well as to investigate the presence of parasitic DNA in the heart using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty-two male sheep were divided into the following four groups: G1, which consisted of six sheep infected by T. vivax that were evaluated until ...

Identification of novel antigens for serum IgG diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

In the present study, we attempted to identify antigens with high sensitivity and specificity for the serological diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis. We investigated soluble proteins from the tachyzoites of the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and excreted/secreted antigens (ESAs) from the peritoneal protein of T. gondii-infected mice. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analysis revealed that in both soluble tachyzoite antigens and E...

Rapamycin exposure to host and to adult worms affects life history traits of Heligmosomoides bakeri.

Parasite life history can be affected by conditions of the host and of the external environment. Rapamycin, a known immunosuppressant of mammals, was fed to laboratory mice that were then infected with the Trichostrongylid nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri to determine if host rapamycin exposure would affect parasite survival, growth, and reproduction. In addition, adult worms from control fed mice were directly exposed to rapamycin to assess if rapamycin would affect worm viability and ex vivo reproduction. ...

Anti-Trypanosoma activity of bioactive metabolites from Photorhabdus luminescens and Xenorhabdus nematophila.

Only two drugs are currently available for the treatment of Chagas disease and their effectiveness are unsatisfactory. Photorhabdus luminescens and Xenorhabdus nematophila, two enteric bacteria highly pathogenic to a broad range of insects, have been studied as potential source for bioactive metabolites against protozoa causing neglected tropical diseases. Therefore, we tested the in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of secreted metabolites from these bacteria. The conditioned medium of X. nematophila a...

Effect of tiliamosine, a bis, benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Tiliacora acuminata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thom on the immature stages of filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus say (Diptera: Culicidae).

The present study was aimed to check the mosquitocidal activity of tiliamosine isolated from Tiliacora acuminata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thom against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. Eggs and larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to different concentrations of tiliamosine - 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm - prepared using DMSO. The compound tiliamosine showed good larvicidal activity with LC and LC values of 1.13 and 2.85 ppm respectively, against third-instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus at 24 ...

Benznidazole, itraconazole and their combination in the treatment of acute experimental chagas disease in dogs.

Chagas disease (CD) is a serious public health problem in Latin America and its treatment remains neglected. Benznidazole (BZ), the only drug available in Brazil, presents serious side effects and low therapeutic efficacy, especially at the chronic phase. The last clinical trials demonstrated that the first generation of azole compounds were less successful than BZ in CD chemotherapy, which stimulated studies of these compounds associated to BZ and nifurtimox (NF). This study evaluated the therapeutic effic...

Successful treatment of acute experimental toxoplasmosis by spiramycin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles.

Spiramycin-metronidazole and spiramycin-loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) were tested in comparison with the current spiramycin treatment of T.gondii concerning tissue penetration and blood brain barrier (BBB) passage. Swiss Albino mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 2500 T. gondii tachyzoites RH strain and were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental groups orally received CS NPs, spiramycin, spiramycin-metronidazole, spiramycin-loaded CS NPs 400 mg/kg and spiramycin...

Pharmacologic interaction between oxfendazole and triclabendazole: In vitro biotransformation and systemic exposure in sheep.

The aim of the current work was to evaluate a potential pharmacokinetic interaction between the flukicide triclabendazole (TCBZ) and the broad-spectrum benzimidazole (BZD) anthelmintic oxfendazole (OFZ) in sheep. To this end, both an in vitro assay in microsomal fractions and an in vivo trial in lambs parasitized with Haemonchus contortus resistant to OFZ and its reduced derivative fenbendazole (FBZ) were carried out. Sheep microsomal fractions were incubated together with OFZ, FBZ, TCBZ, or a combination o...

Sex dichotomy in the course of experimental latent toxoplasmosis.

Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic zoonotic protozoan that exceeds neurological and congenital impact sequence to reactivating latent toxoplasmosis especially under immunosuppression. Sex-associated hormones influence the severity of Toxoplasma infection. Thus, our study aimed to compare toxoplasmosis associated morbidity in both male and female mice and to monitor the response to anti-Toxoplasma therapeutics fortified with sex hormones in comparison to presently used drugs. Twenty male and 20 female mic...

Experimental inoculation of Neospora caninum tachyzoites in eared doves (Zenaida auriculata).

Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite distributed worldwide. Although a positive association between the presence of birds and abortions in cattle associated to N. caninum has been reported, the role of the birds in the epidemiologic cycle of the parasite is unknown. To the best knowledge, no experimental studies have evaluated N. caninum in the eared dove, Zenaida auriculata. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Z. auriculate can act as intermediate host for N. caninum. Eighteen birds were divid...

Efficacy of sulfadiazine and pyrimetamine for treatment of experimental toxoplasmosis with strains obtained from human cases of congenital disease in Brazil.

Toxoplasmosis in South America presents great health impacts and is a topic of research interest not only because of the severity of native cases but also due to the predominant atypical genotypes of the parasite circulating in this continent. Typically, symptomatic toxoplasmosis is treated with a combination of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and pyrimethamine (PYR). However, some clinical cases present treatment failures due to an inability of the drugs to control the infection or their significant adverse effects, wh...

Screening of the Pathogen Box for the identification of anti-Acanthamoeba agents.

Acanthamoeba are free living amoeba that have been isolated from different environments like soil, water, air dust. Moreover, they are also able to act as opportunist pathogens, mainly causing a fatal encephalitis and also keratitis in both human and animals. This study was aimed to evaluate the activity of the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) compounds against the trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. Sixteen compounds showed ≥ 90% inhibition of parasite growth in the initial screen (10 ...

In vitro assessment of synergistic combinations of essential oils against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae).

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Acari: Ixodidae), is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle, responsible for causing severe economic losses in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The development of resistance to most of the commonly used chemical acaricides has stimulated the search for new herbal products as an eco-friendly tick control alternative. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro acaricidal activity of essential oils (EOs) of clove...

Preliminary studies on in vitro methods for the evaluation of anticoccidial efficacy/resistance in ruminants.

Ovine Eimeria spp. infections cause increased mortality, reduced welfare and substantial economic losses, and anticocccidials are important for their control. Recent reports of anticoccidial resistance against ovine Eimeria spp. necessitate the development of in vitro methods for the detection of reduced anticoccidial efficacy, especially since the in vivo methods are both expensive, time consuming and requires the use of otherwise healthy animals. The aim of the present study was therefore to approach a pr...

Rapid and sensitive detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum using a newly developed recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterial pathogen responsible for tick-borne fever and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, can seriously affect the health of humans and a wide range of other mammals. In this study, we developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay to detect A. phagocytophilum in clinical samples. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, a pair of specific primers based on the 16S rRNA gene was designed to specifically detect A. phagocytophilum. The assay was performed a...

Development of essential oil-based phyto-formulations to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus using a mixture design approach.

The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important ectoparasites for livestock in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. This tick economically impacts cattle production by reducing weight gain and milk production. Moreover, it is a vector of pathogens causing diseases such as babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Conventional tick control relies mainly on the use of chemical acaricides; however, their intensive use has led to the rapid appearance of resistant tick populations...

Trypanostatic activity of geranylacetone: mitigation of Trypanosoma congolense-associated pathological pertubations and insight into the mechanism of anaemia amelioration using in vitro and in silico models.

Trypanosoma congolense is an important pathogen that wreaks havoc in the livestock industry of the African continent. This study evaluated the in vivo antitrypanosomal activity of geranylacetone and its ameliorative effect on the disease-induced anaemia and organ damages as well as its inhibitory effects against trypanosomal sialidase using in vitro and in silico techniques. Geranylacetone was used to treat T. congolense infected rats, at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg BW, for 14 days where it was found to redu...

A proteomic comparison of excretion/secretion products in Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJ) derived from Lymnaea viatrix or Pseudosuccinea columella.

The characteristics of parasitic infections are often tied to host behavior. Although most studies have investigated definitive hosts, intermediate hosts can also play a role in shaping the distribution and accumulation of parasites. This is particularly relevant in larval stages, where intermediate host's behavior could potentially interfere in the molecules secreted by the parasite into the next host during infection. To investigate this hypothesis, we used a proteomic approach to analyze excretion/secret...

Intranasal immunization with recombinant Trichinella spiralis serine protease elicits protective immunity in BALB/c mice.

The aim of this study was to observe the intestinal mucosal/systemic responses triggered by intranasal vaccination using recombinant Trichinella spiralis serine protease (rTsSP) and its capacity to elicit immune protection against larva challenge in a murine model. rTsSP coupled with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was used to vaccinate mice via intranasal route. The results revealed that intranasal vaccination with rTsSP plus CTB elicited significantly intestinal local sIgA response and a TsSP-specific syste...

Semicarbazone derivatives as promising therapeutic alternatives in leishmaniasis.

In the present study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of synthetic compounds, containing a semicarbazone scaffold as a peptide mimetic framework. The leishmanicidal effect against amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis was also evaluated at concentration of 100 μM-0.01 nM. The derivatives 2e, 2f, 2g and 1g, beyond the standards miltefosine and pentamidine, significantly diminished the number of L. amazonensis amastigotes in macrophages. These derivatives were also active...

Immunome and immune complex-forming components of Brugia malayi identified by microfilaremic human sera.

Adult Brugia malayi proteins with high potential as epidemiological markers, diagnostic and therapeutic targets, and/or vaccine candidates were revealed by using microfilaremic human sera and an immunoproteomic approach. They were HSP70, cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein, independent phosphoglycerate mutase, and enolase. Brugia malayi microfilaria-specific proteins that formed circulating immune complexes (ICs) were investigated. The IC-forming proteins were orthologues of hypothetical protein Bm1_1...


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