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PubMed Journal Database | Expert review of neurotherapeutics RSS

19:20 EDT 19th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 100 from Expert review of neurotherapeutics

Metabolism and inflammation: implications for traumatic brain injury therapeutics.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in young people, affecting 69 million people annually, worldwide. The initial trauma disrupts brain homeostasis resulting in metabolic dysfunction and an inflammatory cascade, which can then promote further neurodegenerative effects for months or years, as a 'secondary' injury. Effective targeting of the cerebral inflammatory system is challenging due to its complex, pleiotropic nature. Cell metabolism plays a key role in many diseases,...

Effect of antiplatelet pretreatment on safety and efficacy outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients after intravenous thrombolysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

About 40% of acute ischemic stroke patients are under antiplatelet pretreatment. Previous studies have shown conflicting results on the effect of prior antiplatelet agents on post thrombolytic clinical outcomes.

Iron and manganese-related CNS toxicity: mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment.

Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential nutrients for humans. They act as cofactors for a variety of enzymes. In the central nervous system (CNS), these two metals are involved in diverse neurological activities. Dyshomeostasis may interfere with the critical enzymatic activities, hence altering the neurophysiological status and resulting in neurological diseases. Areas covered: In this review, the authors cover the molecular mechanisms of Fe/Mn-induced toxicity and neurological diseases, as well as the ...

Microbial monotherapy with Prevotella histicola for patients with multiple sclerosis.

The gut microbiome helps to maintain a person's healthy state while perturbations in its function often leading to the development of inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). Consequently, gut-commensals which restore homeostasis have the potential to become novel therapeutic options for treating MS. MS patients have presented gut microbial dysbiosis with a reduction in bacteria belonging to the Prevotella genus. Notably, increased levels of Prevotella are observed when disease-modifying the...

An update on ketamine and its two enantiomers as rapid-acting antidepressants.

Depression is one of the most disabling diseases worldwide. Approximately one-third of depressed patients are treatment-resistant to the currently available antidepressants and there is a significant therapeutic time lag of weeks to months. There is a clear unmet need for rapid-acting and more efficacious treatments. (R,S)-ketamine, an old anesthetic drug, appears now to be going through a renaissance. Areas covered: This paper reviews recent literature describing the antidepressant effects of ketamine and ...

Rationale and patient selection for interventional therapies in Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing in prevalence due to a growing elderly population. Although there is no cure, there are exercise therapies and medications for mild to moderate disease. For more advanced disease, infusion or surgical interventions including deep brain stimulation surgery, levodopa carbidopa intestinal gel and subcutaneous apomorphine infusion are considered. As these interventions become increasingly available, it is imperative for a neurologist involved in the care of advanced PD to ...

Current and emerging ALS biomarkers: utility and potential in clinical trials.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder which results in progressive muscle weakness as a prominent feature. However, clinical and pathogenic heterogeneity with regard to anatomical sites of disease onset and progression over time are important features of the disease which have frustrated attempts to inform patients about their prognosis as well as limited the potential successes of therapeutic studies. Areas covered: This paper discusses: clinical biomarkers which can be measur...

Childhood-onset craniopharyngioma: latest insights into pathology, diagnostics, treatment and follow-up.

Childhood-onset craniopharyngiomas are rare embryonic tumors of low-grade histological malignancy. Severe obesity, physical fatigue and psychosocial deficits due to hypothalamic tumor involvement have negative impact on quality of life. Initial pretreatment involvement of hypothalamic structures and/or treatment-related lesions result in sequelae clinically associated with impaired social and physical functionality and severe neuroendocrine deficiencies. Overall and progression-free survival rates are not a...

How would we combat menopause as an Alzheimer's risk factor?

Controlled-release pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia.

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder whose symptoms of musculo-skeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances and cognitive impairment pervade the personal, occupational and social aspects of a patient's life. Together with the antidepressants duloxetine and milnacipram, the anticonvulsant pregabalin (PGB) is one of the three drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of FM. The aim of this narrative review is to summarise the data relating to the efficacy and safety of the co...

Deutetrabenazine for the treatment of Huntington's chorea.

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder for which no disease-modifying treatment is currently available. Only symptomatic treatment can be offered. Chorea is the most common motor manifestation of HD and may interfere with daily activities, reduce quality of life and cause injury. Areas covered: Deutetrabenazine is the first deuterated drug and second drug after tetrabenazine, the classic vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor, to receive approval for the treat...

Advances in autoimmune myasthenia gravis management.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder with no cure and conventional treatments limited by significant adverse effects and variable benefit. In the last decade, therapeutic development has expanded based on improved understanding of autoimmunity and financial incentives for drug development in rare disease. Clinical subtypes exist based on age, gender, thymic pathology, autoantibody profile, and other poorly defined factors, such as genetics, complicate development of specific therap...

The diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy: current opinions and challenges.

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is associated with microtubule associated protein tau dysfunction. Originally thought to result in a syndrome of atypical parkinsonism, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and cognitive impairment, several additional phenotypic manifestations of PSP pathology have been described over the last 20 years. Furthermore, prototypical PSP features may develop late, making early diagnosis challenging. Areas covered: An in-depth view of emerging knowledge in the field of PSP. Advanc...

Sleep disorders and the risk of stroke.

Stroke is a major cause of disability and death in the United States and across the world, and the incidence and prevalence of stroke are expected to rise significantly due to an aging population. Obstructive sleep apnea, an established independent risk factor for stroke, is a highly prevalent disease that is estimated to double the risk of stroke. It remains uncertain whether non-apnea sleep disorders increase the risk of stroke. Areas covered: This paper reviews the literature describing the association b...

Advances in migraine neuroimaging and clinical utility: from the MRI to the bedside.

In current migraine clinical practice, no specific diagnostic investigations are available and therefore the diagnosis is an eminently clinical process where instrumental examinations may have a part to exclude possible causes of secondary headaches. While migraine clinical phenotype has been widely characterized, migraine pathophysiology has still a gap that might be partly bridged by structural and functional neuroimaging investigations. Areas Covered: This article aims to review the recent advances in fu...

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: diagnosis and potential therapies.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the pathologic deposition of amyloid-beta within cortical and leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, capillaries and, in rare cases, the venules of the brain. It is often associated with the development of lobar intracerebral hemorrhages but may cause other neurologic symptoms or be asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, such as lobar microbleeds, support a diagnosis of CAA and assist with hemorrhage risk assessments. Immunosuppressants ...

Therapies for mobility disability in persons with multiple sclerosis.

Mobility disability is one of the most widespread and impactful consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). Disease modifying drugs (DMDs) may delay the progression of disability over time; however, there is minimal evidence supporting the efficacy of DMDs for reversing mobility disability or restoring ambulatory function in persons with MS. Areas covered: This review outlines symptomatic pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapeutic approaches that target mobility disability with the goal of restoring and i...

To diagnose or not to diagnose? Timing is the question: balancing early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis with misdiagnosis.

Do pre-clinical multiple sclerosis models allow us to measure neurodegeneration and clinical progression?

Identifying and mitigating Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) risk factors.

Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is a significant cause of death for people with chronic epilepsy. Good practice guidance in the UK and the USA expect SUDEP to be discussed with the individual. The event rarity, methodological variance and lack of robust research into the pathological mechanisms, associated risk factors, and management strategies have created a challenge on how and what to discuss. There are some significant associations which allows for risk assessment and mitigation. Areas cove...

Clinical applications of ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of paramount importance for the early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and MRI findings are part of the MS diagnostic criteria. There is a growing interest in the use of ultra-high-field strength -7 Tesla- (7T) MRI to investigate, in vivo, the pathological substrate of the disease. Areas covered: An overview of 7T MRI applications in MS focusing on increased sensitivity for lesion detection, specificity of the central vein sign and better understanding of MS pathophys...

Brain Circuits and Neurochemical Systems in Essential Tremor:Insights into Current and Future Pharmacotherapeutic Approaches.

There are few medications that are available for the treatment of essential tremor (ET) and they are only moderately effective. Areas covered: Data were obtained from a PubMed search. Original articles, review articles, and clinical guidelines were included. Two disease models for ET have been proposed: 1) the olivary model, which attributes ET to a pathological pacemaker in the inferior olivary nucleus, and 2) the cerebellar degeneration model, which postulates that ET originates in the cerebellum and coul...

Anti lingo 1 (opicinumab) a new monoclonal antibody tested in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The modern treatment era for MS witnessed a growing pool of drugs now available for use in clinical practice. These therapies work at different levels, however there is a lack of treatments acting on the neurodegenerative component or improving mechanism of repair. Areas covered: The latest knowledge about the pathophysiological changes occurring in MS have translated into novel treatments at different stages of ...

Normobaric hyperoxygenation: a potential neuroprotective therapy for acute ischemic stroke?

Pseudoprogression after glioma therapy: an update.

Initial diagnostics and follow-up of gliomas is usually based on contrast-enhanced MRI. However, the capacity of standard MRI to differentiate neoplastic tissue from posttherapeutic effects such as pseudoprogression is limited. Advanced neuroimaging methods may provide relevant additional information, which allow for a more accurate diagnosis especially in clinically equivocal situations. This review article focuses predominantly on PET using radiolabeled amino acids and advanced MRI techniques such as perf...


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