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PubMed Journal Database | Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment RSS

09:25 EST 19th November 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 257 from Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Development and validation of a quantitative UHPLC-MS/MS method for selected brominated flame retardants in food.

An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated (in-house) for the quantification of selected brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), tetrabromobisphenol S (TBBPS) and bromophenols (BPs), in various food matrices. The sample preparation consisted of extraction of TBBPS with acidified acetonitrile followed by a fast dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) clean-up...

Post-harvest practices linked with ochratoxin A contamination of coffee in three provinces of Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines.

One of the emerging concerns in the Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines is ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in coffee. During 2015 to 2016, a total of 51 Arabica (Coffea arabica) coffee samples from Benguet province and 71 Robusta (Coffea canephora var. Robusta) coffee samples from the provinces of Ifugao and Kalinga were analysed for OTA contamination. The OTA-producing fungal contaminants during drying and storage of Arabica and Robusta coffee were Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus ochraceus. Oc...

A conceptual framework for the collection of food products in a Total Diet Study.

A total diet study (TDS) provides representative and realistic data for assessing the dietary intake of chemicals, such as contaminants and residues, and nutrients, at a population level. Reproducing the diet through collection of customarily consumed foods and their preparation as habitually eaten is crucial to ensure representativeness, i.e., all relevant foods are included and all potential dietary sources of the substances investigated are captured. Having this in mind, a conceptual framework for buildi...

Multiclass methods for the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: a review.

Milk is an important and beneficial food from a nutritional point of view, being an indispensable source of high quality proteins. Furthermore, it is a raw material for many dairy products, such as yoghurt, cheese, cream etc. Before reaching consumers, milk goes through production, processing and circulation. Each step involves potentially unsafe factors, such as chemical contamination that can affect milk quality. Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine for dry cow therapy and mastitis treatment...

Determination of seven pyrethroid pesticides residue in vegetables by gas chromatography using carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes as dispersion solid phase extraction sorbent.

:A novel carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) method combined with gas chromatography (GC) with ECD detection was developed for the determination of seven pyrethroid pesticides in cucumber, spinach, eggplant, tomato and carrot. We optimized d-SPE conditions including the type and volume of the extractant, the type and amount of the sorbent, and shaking time. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range was from 2.0 to 2000 μg kg(-1). The rec...

Risk assessment of dietary exposure to phytosterol oxidation products from baked food in China.

Phytosterols are nutritional phytochemicals that may undergo oxidation and be transformed into phytosterol oxidation products (POPs), thus inducing pathological and toxic effects. This work investigated 4 main phytosterols and 28 POPs in 104 kinds of commercial baked food by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dietary exposure and hazard index values (HI) associated with POPs from baked food consumption in China were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation. Concentrations of the total phytoste...

Solid Phase Extraction of Large Volume of Water and Beverage Samples to Improve Detection Limits for GC-MS Analysis of Bisphenol A and Four Other Bisphenols.

Solid phase extraction (SPE) of large volumes of water and beverage products was investigated for the GC-MS analysis of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol E (BPE), and bisphenol B (BPB). While absolute recoveries of the method were improved for water and some beverage products (e.g., diet cola, iced tea), breakthrough may also have occurred during SPE of 200 mL of other beverages (e.g., BPF in cola). Improvements in method detection limits were observed with the analysis of...

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of azoxystrobin and its metabolites azoxystrobin free acid and 2-hydroxybenzonitrile in greenhouse grown lettuce.

Lettuce is an important part of the diet in Europe. The permitted levels of pesticides in lettuce are strictly regulated and there is growing urge among food safety authorities to analyse pesticide metabolites as well. Azoxystrobin is one of pesticides that is frequently detected in lettuce. Although there are several analytical methods for the determination of azoxystrobin in lettuce, a sensitive method for the determination of its metabolites in lettuce is lacking. This study aimed at developing an extrac...

Simultaneous detection of 15 antibiotic growth promoters in bovine muscle,blood and urine by UPLC-MS/MS.

An analytical method was established for the rapid detection of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in bovine muscle, and bovine blood and bovine urine, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After the addition of an aqueous solution of EDTA-Na2, the pH of bovine urine samples was directly adjusted to 5.2 by acetic acid-ammonium acetate and purified by HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge; bovine muscle and bovine blood samples processing were extracted with...

Determination of several common disinfection by-products in frozen foods.

Disinfected water and/or disinfectants are commonly used by the freezing industry in such processes as sanitising, washing, blanching, cooling and transporting the final product. For this reason, disinfection by-products (DBPs) can be expected in frozen foods. This study focused on the presence of DBPs in a wide variety of frozen vegetables, meats and fish. For this purpose, the 14 halogenated DBPs more prevalent in disinfected water were selected (4 trihalomethanes, 7 haloacetic acids, 2 haloacetonitriles ...

Detection and characterization of aluminium-containing nanoparticles in Chinese noodles by single particle ICP-MS.

This study investigated Chinese noodles for the presence of aluminium-containing nanoparticles by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in single particle mode (spICP-MS) after enzymatic digestion by α-amylase. The aluminium concentrations in the noodle samples, determined by conventional ICP-MS without or with the use of hydrofluoric acid for digestion, were 5.4 ± 1.9 µg/g and 10.1 ± 2.2 µg/g (N=21), respectively. Aluminium-containing nanoparticles were detected by spICP-MS in all 21 samp...

PRESENCE OF TRIHALOMETHANES IN READY-TO-EAT VEGETABLES DISINFECTED WITH CHLORINE.

Trihalomethanes (THMs) - CHCl3, CHCl2Br, CHClBr2 and CHBr3 - are drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). These compounds can also be absorbed by different types of foods, including ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh vegetables. The potential absorption of THMs during washing of RTE vegetables could pose a potential risk to consumers' health. The concentration of THMs in the water used in the manufacturing process of these products shall not exceed the limit of 100 or 80 µgL(-1) according to European Union (E...

HPLC-DAD METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL IN CORN CHIPS BY MEANS OF RESPONSE SURFACE OPTIMIZATION.

In recent years, there has been an increased concern about the presence of toxic compounds derived from the Maillard reaction produced during food cooking at high temperatures. The main toxic compounds derived from this reaction are acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The majority of analytical methods require sample treatments using solvents which are highly polluting for the environment. The difficulty for quantifying HMF in complex fried food matrices encourages the development of new analytical ...

Development of a Quantitative Multi-Compound Method for the Detection of 14 Nitrogen-rich Adulterants by LC-MS/MS in Food Materials.

The increasing number of food frauds using exogenous nitrogen-rich adulterants to artificially raise the protein content for economically motivated adulteration has demonstrated the need of a robust analytical methodology. This method should be applicable for quality control in operations covering a wide range of analyte concentrations to be able to analyze high levels as usually found in adulteration, as well as low levels due to contamination. The paper describes a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectr...

Persistent organic pollutants in farmed European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus, 1758) from Sicily (Italy).

Farmed European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus, 1758) were collected during 2016 from one Sicilian fish farm which uses two different rearing systems: sea cage and concrete tank, for determination of PCB, OCP and PAH residues, by HRGC-MS/MS. Moreover, commercial feed was analyzed. The aims of this study was to verify if the different rearing systems affect the concentration of these compounds and to verify the safety of cultured fish. PCBs represent the pollutants with the highest concentration and...

Impact of agronomic and climatic factors on the mycotoxin content of harvested oats in the UK.

A survey was conducted to determine the concentration of fusarium mycotoxins in UK oats over three seasons (2006-2008). One hundred oat samples were collected each year at harvest, together with agronomic details, and analysed for ten fusarium mycotoxins. The incidence and concentration of most fusarium mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, were relatively low in oats compared to values previously reported for wheat. HT-2 toxin (HT2) and T-2 toxin (T2) levels were relatively high with an ove...

Impact of ion-pairs for the determination of multiclass antimicrobials residues in honey by LC-MS/MS.

This study examines the behavior of volatile perfluorinated carboxylic acids used as ion-pairing reagents for the separation of multiclass antimicrobial residues in honey (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolides and aminoglycosides). Heptafluorobutanoic acid and pentafluoropentanoic acid were compared as mobile phase additives at concentrations between 0-20 mmol.L(-1) using reversed phase chromatography. Our objective was to find optimal conditions that enable the separation of antimicrobials with a minimum...

Spectroscopy applied to feed additives of the European Union Reference Laboratory: a valuable tool for traceability.

Feed additives need to be authorised to be placed on the market according to Regulation (EU) No. 1831/2003. Next to laying down the procedural requirements, the regulation creates the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL-FA) and requires that applicants send samples to the EURL-FA. Once authorised, the characteristics of the marketed feed additives should correspond to those deposited in the sample bank of the EURL-FA. For this purpose, the submitted samples were subjected to near-in...

Fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids during processing of milk of cows treated with ragwort.

To investigate the fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) during milk processing, milk of cows treated via rumen fistula with a mixture of 84% (w/w) ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris, syn. Senecio jacobaea) and 16% narrow-leaved ragwort (Senecio inaequidens), was processed using laboratory scale heating systems with industrial settings. Pasteurised and sterilised (UHT) milk were produced, as well as set-type yoghurt and cheese. Samples were analysed for 29 PAs using LC-MS/MS, of which eleven PAs were detected above...

Determination of Fusarium toxins in functional vegetable milks applying salting out assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Vegetable milks are considered as functional foods due to their physiological benefits. Although the consumption of these products has significantly increased, they have received little attention in legislation, as regard to contaminants. However, they may contain mycotoxins resulting from the use of contaminated raw materials. In this work, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been proposed for the determination of the most relevant Fusarium toxins (fumonisin B1 and B2,...

Direct determination of 3-chloropropanol esters in edible vegetable oils using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS-Orbitrap).

A series of refined edible oils derived from mixed seeds, peanuts, corn, sunflower and palm, obtained from the local supermarket were analyzed for their content of 3-MCPD esters. A direct analytical method for the determination of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD esters) was applied to investigate the major MCPD esters found in common edible oils; in particular seven types of monoesters and eleven types of diesters were detected. The LODs for monoesters and diesters of 3-MCPD were in the r...

Receptor Binding Assay for the Detection of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins: Comparison to the Mouse Bioassay and Applicability under Regulatory Use.

The receptor-binding assay (RBA) method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins was evaluated for its overall performance in comparison with the mouse bioassay (MBA). An initial study to evaluate the effects of filtering shellfish extracts prior to running the RBA indicated no significant difference between filtered and unfiltered extracts on the determined saxitoxin concentrations. Next, we tested the RBA assay on 295 naturally contaminated mussel tissue samples, ranging in concentr...

A Review of the Current Situation of Aflatoxin M1 in Cow's Milk in Serbia - Risk Assessment and Regulatory Aspects.

The aim of this systematic review is to provide information regarding the incidence and levels of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in raw and heat processed cow's milk in Serbia during 2015-2016 and to compare these with collected data on the occurrence of AFM1 in raw milk and dairy products during last decade in our region. Estimation of Dietary Exposure (EDI) and Hazard Index (HI) calculations for different age groups of the population were also carried out, based on the AFM1 content of the milk samples and on availab...

Longitudinal modelling of the exposure of young UK patients with PKU to Acesulfame K and Sucralose.

Artificial sweeteners are used in protein substitutes intended for the dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism (Phenylketonuria, PKU) to improve the variety of medical foods available to patients and ensure dietary adherence to the prescribed course of dietary management. These patients can be exposed to artificial sweeteners from the combination of free and prescribed foods. Young children have a higher risk of exceeding acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for additives than adults due to higher food ...

Multiclass mycotoxin analysis in edible oils using a simple solvent extraction method and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of eleven mycotoxins-aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; fumonisins B1, B2, and B3; ochratoxin A; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; and T-2 toxin-in edible oils was established using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, QuEChERS, QuEChERS with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and solvent extraction were examined for sample preparation. Among these methods, solvent extraction with a mixture of formic acid/acetoni...


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