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PubMed Journal Database | Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association RSS

09:05 EDT 27th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 930 from Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in herbal medicinal products: Limits and occurrence.

Since 2013, a potential contamination of medicinal plant material with pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing weeds e.g. Senecio has been discussed. The knowledge about such a risk of contamination induced suppliers of medicinal drugs and manufacturers of medicinal teas to investigate the situation regarding herbal drugs and teas and other medicinal products of plant origin. As due to worldwide cultivation/collection and season-dependent sourcing processes an immediate elimination or even reduction of PA contami...

Neonatal exposure to furan alters the development of reproductive systems in adult male Sprague Dawley rats.

Furan is a colorless toxic organic compound that is produced during thermal degradation of natural food constituents, and is present in various processed foods such as coffee and processed baby foods. The present study investigated the endocrine disrupting potential of furan in Sprague Dawley male pups. On postnatal day 0 (PND 0), pups were divided into five groups. The control group received subcutaneous injections of corn oil (50 μL), while the treated groups were injected with one of four concentratio...

Risk assessment of energy drinks with focus on cardiovascular parameters and energy drink consumption in Europe.

To assess the possible cardiovascular risks associated with energy drink (ED) consumption in Europe, a comprehensive literature research was performed in regard to (i) possible ED-induced dose-dependent cardiovascular outcomes, (ii) ED consumption patterns in Europe and (iii) the risks of EDs in combination with alcohol. The identified intervention studies primarily investigated acute ED effects in young healthy adults. Moderate consumption of EDs corresponding to an acute caffeine intake of up to 200 mg ...

Paederia foetida induces anticancer activity by modulating chromatin modification enzymes and altering pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in human prostate cancer cells.

Aberrant epigenetic modifications are responsible for tumor development and cancer progression; however, readily reversible. Bioactive molecules from diets are promising to cure cancer by modulating epigenetic marks and changing immune response. These compounds specifically target the activity of DNMTs and HDACs to cure various human cancers. In view of this, we investigated the anticancer and epigenetic regulatory activities of an edible-plant Paederia foetida. The efficacy of methanolic extract of P. foet...

Neurobehavioral toxicity of triclosan in mice.

Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial compound which is used in many cosmetic products, medical devices and house hold products. Toxicity attributed to TCS has recently become a focus of research. Recent studies showed that TCS can easily migrate into the human brain and animal tissues and cause adverse changes in various target organs. Our knowledge of the neurotoxicity of TCS is largely based on very limited data. In this regard, adult male NMRI mice were administered TCS (1000, 2000, and 4000...

Risk assessment of intake of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from herbal teas and medicines following realistic exposure scenarios.

In this study five types of herbal teas were used to quantify the effect of comminution of the leaves on resulting PA exposure. Results show that PA levels extracted from intact leaves were consistently lower than from comminuted tea leaves. The Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach was applied to evaluate the consequences of this difference for the associated risks in the scenario of lifetime exposure. Furthermore, we considered medicinal use of these teas for shorter-than-lifetime exposure scenarios, and also...

Detoxification effects of aloe polysaccharide and propolis on the urinary excretion of metabolites in smokers.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the detoxifying effects of aloe polysaccharide (APS), propolis, and the mixture of APS and propolis on the urinary excretion of major human tobacco carcinogens, BaP and an addictive stimulant alkaloid, nicotine. Smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day) were randomly classified into four subgroups (10 people/group) and were given 600 mg/day of APS, 600 mg/day of propolis, or 600 mg/day of the mixture of APS (420 mg/day) and propolis (180 mg/day) for four weeks....

Estimation of the burden of disease attributable to red meat consumption in France: Influence on colorectal cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

The consumption of red meat has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess quantitatively the burden of disease of CRC and CVD due to the consumption of red meat in France. A probabilistic risk assessment model quantifying the risk, deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALY) of both outcomes was built. In the model, uncertainty and variability were propagated separately. The model used data on current CRC and CVD i...

Effects of N-trans-feruloyltyramine isolated from laba garlic on antioxidant, cytotoxic activities and HO-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 and L02 cells.

Laba garlic is a kind of processed garlic products, it is the traditional Chinese food with a long history. In this study, the antitumor, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of the blue pigment (BP) from Laba garlic were investigated. N-trans-feruloyltyramine (FLA) was isolated and identified from BP. The protective effects of FLA against HO-induced oxidative damages in L02 cells were also assessed. The apoptotic effects of FLA were detected by using flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that the tumor...

Compound K producing from the enzymatic conversion of gypenoside by naringinase.

Compound K is a type of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides (PPDs) that has strong bioactivities due to fewer glycosyls. However, compound K is not present in raw and unprocessed ginseng. Some PPDs have the same structure with gypenosides, and could be obtained from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. The enzymolysis of PPD-type gypenosides of G. pentaphyllum by naringinase has been reported for the first time in this research. In addition, isolation and identification of enzymolysis end product, and the optimization of...

Human CYP3A4-mediated toxification of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid lasiocarpine.

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are widely distributed phytotoxins contaminating food and feed. Hepatic enzymes are considered to bioactivate PA. Previous studies showed differences in the metabolism rate in liver homogenates of different species. Thus, uncertainty remains with respect to the relevance of human metabolism. Our study aimed to analyze whether the PA representative lasiocarpine is toxified by human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. We compared the metabolic elimination of lasiocarpine in the presenc...

French infant total diet study: Dietary exposure to heat-induced compounds (acrylamide, furan and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and associated health risks.

A total diet study (TDS) was conducted between 2010 and 2016 to assess the risk associated with chemicals in food of non-breast-fed children from 1 to 36 months living in France. Food samples were collected, prepared "as consumed", and analyzed for chemicals of public health interest. Acrylamide, furan and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed as heat-induced compounds produced mainly during thermal processing of foods. Dietary exposure was assessed for 705 representative children using food...

Determination the set-off migration of ink in cardboard-cups used in coffee vending machines.

The set-off migration from printing inks can cause alterations in the safety and acceptability of food. Therefore, its control in the food industry is of special importance. The aim of this study was the determination of the migration of compounds coming from different types of cardboard-cups used in coffee vending machines. The volatile compounds present in cardboard-cups were studied and specific migration studies were carried out by solid phase microextraction with headspace coupled to gas chromatography...

Transcriptional study after Beauvericin and Enniatin B combined exposure in Jurkat T cells.

Simultaneous mycotoxins toxicity is complex and non-predictable based on their individual toxicities. Beauvericin and Enniatins are emerging mycotoxins highly co-occurrent in food and feed, and their cytotoxicity has been reported in several human cell lines. RNA-seq studies of individual exposure in Jurkat cells demonstrated human genome perturbation mainly affecting mitochondrial pathways, however, both mycotoxins showed differences between their toxic responses. This study investigates the transcriptiona...

A comprehensive review on biological activities and toxicology of crocetin.

Natural products with high pharmacological potential and low toxicity have been considered as the novel therapeutic agents. Crocetin is an active constituent of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma, which in its free-acid form is insoluble in water and most organic solvents. Crocetin exhibits various health-promoting properties including anti-tumor, neuroprotective effects, anti-diabetics, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia, etc. These therapeutic effects can be achieved with different mechanisms such as ...

Metabolism and disposition of arsenic species from controlled dosing with dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in adult female CD-1 mice. V. Toxicokinetic studies following oral and intravenous administration.

Arsenic species contaminate food and water, with typical dietary intake below 1 μg/kg bw/d. Exposure to arsenic in heavily contaminated drinking water is associated with human diseases, including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, diabetes, and cancer. Dietary intake assessments show that rice and seafood are the primary contributors to intake of both inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and at similar magnitudes. DMA plays a central role in the toxicology of arsenic because enzymati...

Environmental mercury exposure and selenium-associated biomarkers of antioxidant status at molecular and biochemical level. A short-term intervention study.

Mercury (Hg) is a potent toxicant. In the field of public health a chronic-low-level environmental Hg exposure resulting from fish consumption in general population is still being discussed. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of real Hg exposure on biomarkers of selenium (Se) status and selected biomarkers of pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant effects in healthy men (n = 67) who participated in the short-term intervention study consisting in daily fish consumption for two weeks. The analysis i...

Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived pyocyanin reduces adipocyte differentiation, body weight, and fat mass as mechanisms contributing to septic cachexia.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of sepsis, produces pyocyanin, a blue-pigmented virulence factor. Sepsis is associated with cachexia, but mechanisms are unknown and conventional nutrition approaches are not effective. Pyocyanin has affinity for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is expressed on adipocytes and regulates adipocyte differentiation. The purpose of this study was to define in vitro and in vivo effects of pyocyanin on adipocyte differentiation and body weight regulation as relates...

Assessment and characterization of DNA adducts produced by alkenylbenzenes in fetal Turkey and chicken livers.

Formation of DNA adducts by five alkenylbenzenes, safrole, methyl eugenol, eugenol, and asarone with either α- or β-conformation, was analyzed in fetal avian livers in two in ovo models. DNA reactivity of the carcinogens safrole and methyl eugenol was previously demonstrated in the turkey egg model, whereas non-genotoxic eugenol was negative. In the current study, alkenylbenzenes were also tested in the chicken egg model. Injections with alkenylbenzenes were administered to fertilized turkey or chicken eg...

Cognitive-enhancing and ameliorative effects of acanthoside B in a scopolamine-induced amnesic mouse model through regulation of oxidative/inflammatory/cholinergic systems and activation of the TrkB/CREB/BDNF pathway.

Recently, our research team reported the anti-amnesic potential of desalted-hydroethanolic extracts of Salicornia europaea L. (SE-EE). In this study, we performed bioactivity-guided isolation and identification of Acanthoside B (Aca.B), from SE-EE, as the potential bioactive candidate and examined anti-amnesic activity with its potential mechanism of action using an in vivo model. S7-L3-3 purified from SE-EE showed enhanced in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The isolated S7-L3-3 was i...

Anthraquinone-type inhibitor of α-glucosidase enhances glucose uptake by activating an insulin-like signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes.

This study assesses the ability of anthraquinone derivative, 2-methyl-1,3,6-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (MTAQ) to decrease postprandial hyperglycemia or enhance glucose uptake and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. We investigated α-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, and translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in C2C12 myotubes. The data indicate that MTAQ strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC value of 6.49 ± 1.31 μM, ...

Phenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties, and in vitro anti-HepG2 cell activities of wild apricot (Armeniaca Sibirica L. Lam) kernel skins.

The polyphenols profiles of the methanol extracts of bitter apricot [Armeniaca Sibirica (L.)] kernel skins (AKS) were analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The antioxidan, anticancer effect on HepG2 cell and antibacterial properties of the AKS polyphenol extracts were further characterized in vitro. Polyphenol compounds (35), including nine phenolic acids, thirteen anthocyanins and thirteen flavonoids, were identified in AKS for the first time. The content of apigenin ...

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, isobutyl acetate, CAS Registry Number 110-19-0.

The relevance of a digestibility evaluation in the allergenicity risk assessment of novel proteins. Opinion of a joint initiative of COST action ImpARAS and COST action INFOGEST.

The current allergenicity assessment of novel proteins is based on the EFSA GMO guidance. Recently, EFSA launched a new guidance document on allergenicity assessment of GM plants (2017). This document describes, amongst other topics, the new scientific and regulatory developments on in vitro protein digestibility tests. The EFSA GMO Panel stated that for in vitro protein digestibility tests, additional investigations are needed before any additional recommendation in the form of guidance can be provided. To...

Smoking and DNA methylation: Correlation of methylation with smoking behavior and association with diseases and fetus development following prenatal exposure.

Among epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation has been widely studied with respect to many environmental factors. Smoking is a common factor which affects both global and gene-specific DNA methylation. It is supported that smoking directly affects DNA methylation, and these effects contribute to the development and progression of various diseases, such as cancer, lung and cardiovascular diseases and male infertility. In addition, prenatal smoking influences the normal development of the fetus via DNA methyla...


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