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PubMed Journal Database | Forensic science international RSS

06:52 EDT 24th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 870 from Forensic science international

Probabilistic approaches to interpreting two-person DNA mixtures from post-coital specimens.

Biological samples submitted for sexual assault investigation typically involve mixtures of DNA from the victim and the assailant/s. Providing a statistical weight to such evidence may be mathematically complex and may be affected by subjective judgment of a human analyst. Software tools have been developed to address these issues. To contribute towards improving the system for routine DNA testing of sexual assault cases, we evaluated two likelihood ratio (LR) approaches: a semi-continuous model using LRmix...

Vehicle stiffness assessment for energy loss evaluation in vehicle impacts.

The energy loss in a vehicle-to-vehicle impact is an important compatibility indicator between the real event and the reconstruction made by the expert. For its estimate, stiffness characteristics for the vehicle are typically referred to, evaluated by the residual deformation obtained in a crash test. In frontal vehicle into rigid barrier crash tests, residual deformation on the vehicle front is generally measured as the bumper displacement in respect to its undeformed shape; nevertheless, in real crashes,...

Criminal corpse dismemberment in Hamburg, Germany from 1959 to 2016.

Cases of corpse dismemberment are rare, but occur most frequently in urban agglomerations. A distinction is made between defensive and offensive corpse dismemberment. This systematic review retrospectively assesses the phenomenology of 51 cases of corpse dismemberment (30 defensive and 21 offensive), which occurred in a period of 57 years and were subject to medico-legal autopsies performed at the Departement of Legal Medicine in Hamburg, Germany. The victims' gender ratio was 1.7:1 female to male. In mos...

Homicide injury severity in association with the victim-offender relationship.

There are previous studies that have found associations between specific injury patterns and different victim-offender relationships (VORs) in homicides. We have used quantitative injury severity scores to further investigate this issue. The amount and severity of injuries were assessed in 178 Swedish homicide victims, retrospectively included from the years 2007-2009. We analyzed whether different injury measures could be used to predict the VOR. In addition to a deeper understanding of violent behavior, s...

Development of "Quick-DB forensic": A total workflow from QuEChERS-dSPE method to GC-MS/MS quantification of forensically relevant drugs and pesticides in whole blood.

Trends in forensic toxicology show the advancement of rapid and sensitive analytical methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse. However, forensic toxicologists are continuously faced with the challenges of identifying and quantifying drug blood concentration while simultaneously struggling with manpower shortage. In view of developing a simple and productive toxicological analysis method encompassing total workflow from sample preparation to quantitative analysis, here we describe ...

Application of a chemiluminescence immunoassay system and GC/MS for toxicological investigations on skeletonized human remains.

Hair, larvae and cardiac muscle, the only biological samples present on a skeletonized human body found in a rural area, were used for forensic toxicological analyses in order to determine possible causes of death. Since no information about the victim or the circumstances of death was available (except for the place where the corpse was found, known to be a gathering place for drug addicts), the first approach for the analysis of non-conventional matrices involved the screening of different classes of acti...

Ethyl glucuronide hair testing: A review.

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor, non-oxidative ethanol metabolite that can be detected in several matrices (e.g. blood, urine, hair, meconium) for variable periods of time. Quantification of EtG in hair (hEtG) has established itself, over recent years, as one of the most reliable biomarkers of long-term alcohol consumption habits, with the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) offering cut-off values for assessment of both abstinence and heavy drinking (>60 g/day). Despite its high diagnostic performance, how...

Muscular hemorrhages around the scapula resulting from excessive upper extremity motion in cases of fatal drowning: autopsy findings for insights on manner of death.

Muscular hemorrhages around the scapula are frequently found in fatal drowning cases without injuries in the upper back at time of autopsy. The present study investigated the frequency of muscular hemorrhages around the scapula and determined the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon. Muscular hemorrhages around the scapula were found in 104 of 164 (63.4%) bodies assessed. Hemorrhage in the infraspinatus muscle was most common, followed by the supraspinatus muscle. These muscular hemorrhages were not as...

Evaluation of a lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of the synthetic opioid fentanyl.

In 2017, 47,600 overdose deaths were reported to be associated with the abuse of opioids, including prescription painkillers (e.g. oxycodone), opiates (e.g. heroin), or synthetic opioids (e.g. fentanyl) within the United States. The recent spike in the presence of synthetic opioids in lots of heroin distributed on the street present specific and significant challenges to law enforcement. Synthetic opioids are extremely toxic substances, which can easily be inhaled. This type of exposure can lead to accident...

Performance of dental pattern analysis system with treatment chronology on panoramic radiography.

The present study was conducted to improve human identification based on dental pattern with adopting chronology of dental treatment within the system. Five hundred adult patients were randomly selected, and their initial and recent panoramic radiography images were assumed as antemortem (AM) and postmortem (PM) images, respectively. For each radiographic image, the dental pattern was analyzed. The analysis system was newly developed considering sequence of dental treatment in time order. AM and PM database...

The role of the gunshot residue expert in case review - A case study.

This paper details the review of the gunshot residue (GSR) evidence relating to a 2002 murder involving the discharge of a pistol where the Prosecution used the GSR findings together with voice identification evidence and obtained a conviction in the case of R v Dwaine George. Mr George was subsequently represented by Cardiff University Law School's Innocence Project who made representations to the Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC) based on issues relating to the GSR evidence. The CCRC commissioned th...

Decomposition of hanging pig carcasses in a forest habitat of Poland.

We present the results of the first study on the decomposition of hanging carcasses in a forest habitat of Poland. The decomposition of 12 hanging pigs and 12 ground pigs, which were used as control, in spring, summer, and autumn was examined during a two-year study. Mosaic decomposition was observed with bloating, active decay, and advanced decay irrespective of the carrion treatment (hanging vs ground). Bloating was less visible or did not occur at all in hanging pigs. After undergoing advanced decay, car...

A practical study on direct PCR amplification using the GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit on human bloodstains collected with microFLOQ™ Direct swabs.

Rapid DNA profiling of casework samples is a powerful tool that can support law enforcement agencies in the quick apprehension of perpetrators before they re-offend or escape the jurisdiction. This present study evaluated the feasibility of direct PCR amplification, using the microFLOQ™ Direct swab, for generating DNA profiles (from bloodstains) within 3 h. The swab tip is coated with nylon fibers pre-treated with cell lysing agent, which allows for the direct PCR amplification of collected samples with...

Experimental investigation of cranial fracture initiation in blunt human head impacts.

The relationship between the point of blunt impact and the location of cranial fracture initiation continues to be poorly understood. The current study used high-speed video to capture cranial fracture initiation and propagation in impact experiments on twelve unembalmed, intact human cadaver heads. Video footage provided direct evidence that blunt cranial impacts can produce linear fractures initiating peripheral to the impact site. Four tests produced only remote peripheral linear fractures with no damage...

Dental development in cleft lip and palate patients: A systematic review.

To investigate a potential delay in dental development in cleft patients compared with non-cleft patients.

Forensic case coordination in Europe - Their role within 5 European institutes.

Forensic science faces a range of new challenges this past decades, including a change in definition of the scope of the roles of the actors in the criminal justice process. A decentralisation process has been occurring, leading to non-specialists using forensic capabilities. This shift in responsibility has led to a lack of global view of the case which has been remedied by some forensic science laboratories by the creation of a (new) role, that of forensic case coordinator (i.e. forensic coordinator or ad...

Detection of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues in biological samples using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

Fentanyl and analogues such as butyrylfentanyl, carfentanil, 4-fluorobutyrylfentanyl, and furanylfentanyl may be either added to, or sold as, heroin. Fentanyl and carfentanil have approximately 100 and 10,000 times the potency of morphine, respectively, and there is thus a high risk of death with the use of these drugs.

The identification and quantification of synthetic cannabinoids seized in New Zealand in 2017.

There has been an explosion of new psychoactive substances (NPS) over the past decade, with synthetic cannabinoids comprising one of the more extensive and chemically diverse groups. Synthetic cannabinoids, like other NPS, are continually evolving with slight alterations in chemical structure, which can lead to unintended and harmful effects for the user. Furthermore, the clandestine preparation of plant material containing one or more synthetic cannabinoid can result in an unevenly distributed product, whi...

A validated method for the quantification of mitragynine in sixteen commercially available Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) products.

The recent rise in the recreational use of plant-based "legal highs" has prompted the development of methods for the identification of the bulk material, and quantification of their psychoactive components. One of these plants is Mitragyna speciosa, commonly referred to as Kratom. While traditional use of this plant was primarily for medicinal purposes, there has been a rise in its recreational use, and as a self-prescribed medication for opioid withdrawal. Although Kratom contains many alkaloids, mitragyni...

3D mug shot-3D head models from photogrammetry for forensic identification.

No human face is like another, not even in monozygotic twins, which makes the face one of the most individualizing characteristic. It is for this reason that the human face is commonly used for identification purposes and police officers take portrait photographs of arrested persons, so-called mug shots. The disadvantage of these 2D mug shots is that the perspective, in which they are taken (usually frontal and lateral-right, left or both), cannot be changed after acquisition, thus limiting a potential comp...

Reviewer Hall of Fame.

A fatal case of poisoning of a 19-year-old after taking 3-MMC.

The significant increase in the number of new psychoactive substances on the drug market has recently been a serious problem. The manuscript presents a fatal case of suicide poisoning with 3-MMC (3-methylmethcathinone). The biological material collected during the autopsy of a 19-year-old woman, transferred to the toxicological Laboratory in Katowice ToxLab, was subjected to a chemical and toxicological analysis. The toxicological analysis of blood, vitreous humor and gastric contents revealed 3-methylmetca...

Using the information embedded in the mixed profiles to assist in determining the identity of the deceased and the suspect in a deficiency case.

In the present case, due to the lack of database matches and available relatives, the use of single-source DNA profiles from the unidentified deceased and the suspect was not yet able to determine the identity of them, resulting in the inability to continue the investigation. However, by interpreting a simple mixture on the penile swab of the deceased and a complex mixture on the prayer flag wrapped around the ankles of the deceased, the information embedded in these two mixtures provided us with a breakthr...

Lessons to be learned from toxicological analyses in intoxicated patients and seized materials at an electronic music dance festival.

Medical problems related to illicit drug use are frequently encountered at electronic dance music (EDM) events. In this prospective study, the medical problems and toxicological analyses on intoxicated persons and seized materials are described jointly. The aim of this study is to find out to what extent these efforts may assist in developing prevention strategies and organising on-site care at EDM events. The most frequently encountered clinical presentation in the 121 included patients was: agitation/aggr...

Forensic investigation of incidents involving chemical threat agent: Presentation of the operating procedure developed in Belgium for a field-exercise.

The GIFT CBRN project (Generic Integrated Forensic Toolbox for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear incidents), funded under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission, has been set up to find solutions for investigating incidents involving CBRN agents. Regarding the forensic point of view, specific tools and procedures to assist forensic investigators to perform a crime scene investigation (CSI) and methodologies to enable the subsequent analysis of the evidences (contaminated wit...


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