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PubMed Journal Database | Free radical biology & medicine RSS

04:14 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 588 from Free radical biology & medicine

The cyclic nitroxide antioxidant 4-methoxy-TEMPO decreases mycobacterial burden in vivo through host and bacterial targets.

Tuberculosis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by persistent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The rise of antibiotic resistant strains necessitates the design of novel treatments. Recent evidence shows that not only is M. tuberculosis highly resistant to oxidative killing, it also co-opts host oxidant production to induce phagocyte death facilitating bacterial dissemination. We have targeted this redox environment with the cyclic nitroxide derivative 4-methoxy-TEMPO (MetT) in the zebrafish-...

Traffic-related particulate matter exposure induces nephrotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

Traffic emission is responsible for most small-sized particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Several recent studies have indicated that traffic-related PM may aggravate kidney disease. Furthermore, exposure to particulate air pollution may be related to the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been adequately addressed. In the present study, we studied the mechanisms of renal damage that might be associated with exposure to PM. In a real w...

Punicalagin attenuates endothelial dysfunction by activating FoxO1, a pivotal regulating switch of mitochondrial biogenesis.

Accumulating evidence has elucidated that hyperlipidemia is closely associated with an increasing prevalence of CVDs (cardiovascular diseases) because of endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of PU (Punicalagin), a major ellagitannin in pomegranate, on endothelial dysfunction both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, PU significantly ameliorated hyperlipidemia-induced accumulation of serum triglyceride and cholesterol as well as endothelial and mitochondrial dysfu...

Feeding practice influences gut microbiome composition in very low birth weight preterm infants and the association with oxidative stress: A prospective cohort study.

Knowledge about the development of the preterm infant gut microbiota is emerging and is critical to their health. Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight,

A comprehensive study on the generation of reactive oxygen species in Cu-Aβ-catalyzed redox processes.

In the amyloid plaques, a signature of AD, abnormally high Cu concentrations are found bound to Aβ. Most of previous studies reported that Cu-Aβ could contribute to oxidative stress, as HO and •OH are catalytically generated by Cu-Aβ with the assistance of biological reductant, with only one recent report stated that free O is also generated in the Cu-Aβ catalyzed processes, where an indirect technique was applied. To comprehensively investigate the free radicals produced during this Cu-Aβ-mediated p...

Free-radical and biochemical reactions involving polar part of glycerophospholipids.

The review summarizes and critically discusses data on biochemical and free-radical transformations of glycerophospholipids. The results presented therein demonstrate that hydroxyl-containing glycerophospholipids, such as cardiolipin, lyso-lipids and others, can undergo fragmentation upon interaction with radical agents forming the biologically active products. Hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids catalyzed by different phospholipases was shown to yield compounds, which can be involved in the free-radical fra...

Reactive species-induced microvascular dysfunction in ischemia/reperfusion.

Vascular endothelial cells line the inner surface of the entire cardiovascular system as a single layer and are involved in an impressive array of functions, ranging from the regulation of vascular tone in resistance arteries and arterioles, modulation of microvascular barrier function in capillaries and postcapillary venules, and control of proinflammatory and prothrombotic processes, which occur in all segments of the vascular tree but can be especially prominent in postcapillary venules. When tissues are...

Activation of Nrf2 attenuates delayed gastric emptying in obesity induced diabetic (T2DM) female mice.

Diabetic gastroparesis (GP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by delayed gastric emptying (DGE). Loss of Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) led to reduced nNOSα mediated gastric motility and DGE. The molecular signaling of cinnamaldehyde (CNM) mediated Nrf2 activation and its mechanistic role on DGE were further investigated in obese/T2D female mice. Adult female homozygous Nfe2l2 (C57BL/6J) and their wild-type (WT) littermates (Nfe2l2) mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD; Obese/T2D mo...

CD36 signaling in vascular redox stress.

Scavenger receptor CD36 is a multifunctional membrane protein that promotes thrombosis in conditions of oxidative stress such as metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic inflammation. In these conditions, specific reactive oxidant species are generated that are context and cell dependent. In the vasculature, CD36 signaling in smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells promote generation of reactive oxygen species, genetic downregulation of antioxidant genes, and impaired smo...

Adrenic acid non-enzymatic peroxidation products in biofluids of moderate preterm infants.

Oxidative stress plays an essential role in processes of signaling and damage to biomolecules during early perinatal life. Isoprostanoids and isofuranoids from the free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are widely recognized as reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, their quantification is not straightforward due to high structural similarity of the compounds formed. In this work, a semiquantitative method for the analysis of adrenic acid (AdA, C22:4 n-6) non-e...

Fasting reduces oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and fibrosis induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Food deprivation protects against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury through unknown mechanisms. In an experimental rat model of acute IR injury, we found that preoperative fasting for 3 days protects rats from tubular damage and renal functional decline by increasing antioxidant protection independently of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and by maintaining mitochondrial morphology and function. In addition, further analysis revealed that fasting protects against tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In summary, ou...

Inhibition of PDE4 by FCPR16 induces AMPK-dependent autophagy and confers neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y cells and neurons exposed to MPP-induced oxidative insult.

The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is generally not well understood, but it is believed to involve excessive oxidative insult. Hence, identifying therapeutic targets and compounds that exhibit protective effects against oxidative damage is a reasonable strategy to slow down the progression of PD. FCPR16 is a novel phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with little emetic potential. Our previous studies showed that FCPR16 was able to block 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP)-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cell...

Carbon Dioxide-catalyzed peroxynitrite reactivity - The Resilience of the radical mechanism after two decades of research.

Peroxynitrite, ONOO, formed in tissues that are simultaneously generating NO and O, is widely regarded as a major contributor to oxidative stress. Many of the reactions involved are catalyzed by CO via formation of an unstable adduct, ONOOC(O)O, that undergoes O-O bond homolysis to produce NO and CO radicals, whose yields are equal at about 0.33 with respect to the ONOO reactant. Since its inception two decades ago, this radical-based mechanism has been frequently but unsuccessfully challenged. The most rec...

Neuroprotective strategies following perinatal hypoxia-ischemia: Taking aim at NOS.

Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is characterized by oxygen deprivation and lack of perfusion in the perinatal period, leading to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and sequelae such as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, cerebral visual impairment, epilepsy and learning disabilities. On cellular level, PA is associated with a decrease in oxygen and glucose leading to ATP depletion, and a compromised mitochondrial function. Upon reoxygenation and reperfusion, the renewed availability of oxygen gives rise to not only re...

Tat-CIAPIN1 inhibits hippocampal neuronal cell damage through the MAPK and apoptotic signaling pathways.

Cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1) protein is widely expressed in the brain and it is known that this protein is involved in cell survival including dopaminergic neuronal cells. Oxidative stress is known as one of the major causes of degenerative diseases including ischemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of CIAPIN1 protein on hippocampal neuronal (HT-22) cell damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (HO) and in an animal model of ischemia using Tat-CIAPIN1 fusion protein which can trans...

Reduced lifespan of mice lacking catalase correlates with altered lipid metabolism without oxidative damage or premature aging.

The relationship between the mechanisms that underlie longevity and aging and the metabolic alterations due to feeding conditions has not been completely defined. In the present work, through the deletion of the gene encoding catalase, hydrogen peroxide (HO) was uncovered as a relevant regulator of longevity and of liver metabolism. Mice lacking catalase (Cat) fed ad libitum with a regular diet showed a shorter lifespan than wild type mice, which correlated with reduced body weight, blood glucose levels and...

Differential response of immortalized human amnion mesenchymal and epithelial cells against oxidative stress.

Cells are equipped with various antioxidant defense factors to antagonize insults from reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus the antioxidant capacity has been characterized by a variety of cellular responses during the pathophysiological processes. Amniotic cells have been extensively applied in clinical practice for burn treatment, corneal repair, and tissue regeneration. However, the antioxidative properties of amniotic cells have not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the current study was aimed to obse...

Parenteral nutrition and oxidant stress in the newborn: A narrative review.

There is strong evidence that oxidant molecules from various sources contaminate solutions of parenteral nutrition following interactions between the mixture of nutrients and some of the environmental conditions encountered in clinical practice. The continuous infusion of these organic and nonorganic peroxides provided us with a unique opportunity to study in cells, in vascular and animal models, the mechanisms involved in the deleterious reactions of oxidation in premature infants. Potential clinical impac...

Resveratrol protects Lactobacillus reuteri against HO- induced oxidative stress and stimulates antioxidant defenses through upregulation of the dhaT gene.

Understanding of the mechanisms implicated in the protective role of probiotic bacteria is of the utmost scientific interest. This study provides original insight into the genetic and molecular basis of the responses of Lactobacillus reuteri PL503 against hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced oxidative stress. Six experimental groups were considered depending on the addition and concentration of HO and resveratrol: 1. CONTROL (L. reuteri in MRS broth); 2. HO (L. reuteri in MRS broth + 0.5 mM HO); 3. LRES (L. reu...

The deglycase activity of DJ-1 mitigates α-synuclein glycation and aggregation in dopaminergic cells: Role of oxidative stress mediated downregulation of DJ-1 in Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with the degeneration of dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the presence of intra-neuronal aggregates of α-synuclein and its post-translational products. Based on the emerging reports on the association between glycated α-synuclein and PD; and the newly identified deglycase activity of DJ-1, we sought to find the relevance of the deglycase activity of DJ-1 on glycation of α-synuclein and its pla...

Estimation of the hydrogen peroxide producing capacities of liver and cardiac mitochondria isolated from C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice.

Here, we examined the hydrogen peroxide (HO) producing capacities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; complex II), and branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), in cardiac and liver mitochondria isolated from C57BL/6N (6N) and C57BL/6J (6J) mice. Various inhibitor combinations were used to suppress ROS production by complexes I, II, and III and estimate the nativ...

The vicious circle between mitochondrial oxidative stress and dynamic abnormality mediates triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-induced preodontoblast apoptosis.

Oxidative stress (OS) plays crucial roles in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, a major component in dental resin)-induced apoptosis of dental pulp cells. Mitochondria are important target organelles for regulating the balance of OS, meanwhile, imbalance of the mitochondrial dynamic associated with mitochondrial dysfunction is one major molecular mechanism for oxidative damages. However, whether these mitochondrial dependent pathways were involved in the apoptosis of dental pulp cells induced by TDG...

Thioredoxin system as a gatekeeper in caspase-6 activation and nuclear lamina integrity: Implications for Alzheimer's disease.

Recent reports in pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) have linked nuclear lamina degradation/deficits to neuronal cell death. Lamin-B1 damage is specifically involved in this process leading to nuclear envelope invagination and heterochromatin rearrangement. The underlying mechanisms involved in these events are not yet defined. In this study, while examining the effect of Thioredoxin-1(Trx1) inhibition on cell death in a model of oxidative stress, we noted robust nuclear invagination in SH-S...

A thermodynamically-constrained mathematical model for the kinetics and regulation of NADPH oxidase 2 complex-mediated electron transfer and superoxide production.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in cell signaling, growth, and immunity. However, when produced in excess, they are toxic to the cell and lead to premature aging and a myriad of pathologies, including cardiovascular and renal diseases. A major source of ROS in many cells is the family of NADPH oxidase (NOX), comprising of membrane and cytosolic components. NOX2 is among the most widely expressed and well-studied NOX isoform. Although details on the NOX2 structure, its assembly and activ...

Antioxidants & bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Beating the system or beating a dead horse?

Preterm birth is a primary cause of worldwide childhood mortality. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, characterized by impaired alveolar and lung vascular development, affects 25-50% of extremely low birth weight (BW;


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