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PubMed Journal Database | Frontiers in neuroscience RSS

09:38 EST 27th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 39 from Frontiers in neuroscience

Dysfunction of Cellular Proteostasis in Parkinson's Disease.

Despite decades of research, current therapeutic interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD) are insufficient as they fail to modify disease progression by ameliorating the underlying pathology. Cellular proteostasis (protein homeostasis) is an essential factor in maintaining a persistent environment for neuronal activity. Proteostasis is ensured by mechanisms including regulation of protein translation, chaperone-assisted protein folding and protein degradation pathways. It is generally accepted that defici...

Sequential Photoperiodic Programing of Serotonin Neurons, Signaling and Behaviors During Prenatal and Postnatal Development.

Early life stimuli during critical developmental time frames have been linked to increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders later in life. The serotonergic system of the brain is implicated in mood disorders and is impacted by the duration of daylight, or photoperiod. Here we sought to investigate sensitive periods of prenatal and postnatal development for photoperiodic programming of DRN serotonin neurons, midbrain serotonin and metabolite levels along with affective behaviors in adolescence (P30) or ...

Identification of Cholecystokinin by Genome-Wide Profiling as Potential Mediator of Serotonin-Dependent Behavioral Effects of Maternal Separation in the Amygdala.

Converging evidence suggests a role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT synthesis in the brain, in modulating long-term, neurobiological effects of early-life adversity. Here, we aimed at further elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying this interaction, and its consequences for socio-emotional behaviors, with a focus on anxiety and social interaction. In this study, adult, male null mutant () and heterozygous () mice, and th...

Overexpression of CX3CR1 in Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Promotes Cell Migration and Functional Recovery After Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Stem cell therapy has emerged as a new promising therapeutic strategy for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the efficiency of stem cell therapy is partially limited by low retention and engraftment of the delivered cells. Therefore, it's necessary to improve the migration ability of stem cells to the injured area in order to save the costs and duration of cell preparation. This study aimed to investigate whether overexpression of CX3CR1, the specific receptor of chemokine fractalkine (FKN), in adipos...

Flip-Flopping Retinal in Microbial Rhodopsins as a Template for a Farnesyl/Prenyl Flip-Flop Model in Eukaryote GPCRs.

Thirty years after the first description and modeling of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), information about their mode of action is still limited. One of the questions that is hard to answer is: how do the allosteric changes in the GPCR induced by, e.g., ligand binding in the end activate a G protein-dependent intracellular pathway (e.g., via the cAMP or the phosphatidylinositol signal pathways). Another question relates to the role of prenylation of G proteins. Today's "consensus model" states that pro...

Commentary: Detailed Visual Cortical Responses Generated by Retinal Sheet Transplants in Rats With Severe Retinal Degeneration.

Epigenetic Modifications in Alzheimer's Neuropathology and Therapeutics.

Transcriptional activation is a highly synchronized process in eukaryotes that requires a series of - and -acting elements at promoter regions. Epigenetic modifications, such as chromatin remodeling, histone acetylation/deacetylation, and methylation, have frequently been studied with regard to transcriptional regulation/dysregulation. Recently however, it has been determined that implications in epigenetic modification seem to expand into various neurodegenerative disease mechanisms. Impaired learning and ...

Chronic Unilateral Hearing Loss Disrupts Neural Tuning to Sound-Source Azimuth in the Rat Primary Auditory Cortex.

Accurate sound localization requires normal binaural input and precise auditory neuronal representation of sound spatial locations. Previous studies showed that unilateral hearing loss profoundly impaired the sound localization abilities. However, the underlying neural mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we investigated how chronic unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL) affected the neural tuning to sound source azimuth in the primary auditory cortex (AI). The UCHL was manipulated by the removal of ...

CT-Guided Stellate Ganglion Pulsed Radiofrequency Stimulation for Facial and Upper Limb Postherpetic Neuralgia.

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of herpes zoster, manifesting as a persistent, spontaneous, knife-like pain or paroxysmal burning that seriously affects a patient's quality of life. An effective treatment of PHN is lacking. This retrospective study examined the efficacy and safety of stellate ganglion (SG) pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) on facial and upper limb PHN. Eighty-four patients with PHN on the face or upper limbs were enrolled for the study. Patients were randomly divided...

Low Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Melanotransferrin Are Associated With Conversion of Mild Cognitively Impaired Subjects to Alzheimer's Disease.

The disruption of iron metabolism and iron transport proteins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Serum melanotransferrin (MTf), a transferrin homolog capable of reversibly binding iron, has been proposed as a biochemical marker of AD. MTf has also been shown to be elevated in iron-rich reactive microglia near amyloid plaques in AD. We examined the association of CSF MTf to hippocampal volumes and cognitive tests in 86 cognitively normal, 135 mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...

Music and Visual Art Training Modulate Brain Activity in Older Adults.

Cognitive decline is an unavoidable aspect of aging that impacts important behavioral and cognitive skills. Training programs can improve cognition, yet precise characterization of the psychological and neural underpinnings supporting different training programs is lacking. Here, we assessed the effect and maintenance (3-month follow-up) of 3-month music and visual art training programs on neuroelectric brain activity in older adults using a partially randomized intervention design. During the pre-, post-, ...

Brain Differences Between Men and Women: Evidence From Deep Learning.

Do men and women have different brains? Previous neuroimage studies sought to answer this question based on morphological difference between specific brain regions, reporting unfortunately conflicting results. In the present study, we aim to use a deep learning technique to address this challenge based on a large open-access, diffusion MRI database recorded from 1,065 young healthy subjects, including 490 men and 575 women healthy subjects. Different from commonly used 2D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN),...

Chronic Glucocorticoid Exposure Induces Depression-Like Phenotype in Rhesus Macaque (Macaca Mulatta).

It has long been observed in humans that the occurrence of depressive symptoms is often accompanied by the dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The rodent experiments also showed that chronic corticosterone exposure could induce depression-like phenotype. However, rodents are phylogenetically distant from humans. In contrast, non-human primates bear stronger similarities with humans, suggesting research on primates would provide an important complement. For the first time, we investigat...

Cell Autonomous Neuroprotection by the Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 in a Mouse Model of Glaucoma.

Glaucoma is a group of disorders associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and death. There is a clear contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress toward glaucomatous RGC death. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 () is a well-known regulator of oxidative stress that increases cell survival in acute models of oxidative damage. The impact of on cell survival during sub-acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions, however, is not yet clear. Herein, we test the hypothesis t...

Ancient Function of Teneurins in Tissue Organization and Neuronal Guidance in the Nematode .

The nematode expresses the gene that encodes teneurin. TEN-1 protein is expressed throughout the life of . The loss of function results in embryonic and larval lethality, highlighting its importance for fundamental processes during development. TEN-1 is expressed in the epidermis and neurons. Defects in neuronal pathfinding and epidermal closure are characteristic of loss-of-function mutations. The molecular mechanisms of TEN-1 function in neurite outgrowth, neuronal pathfinding, and dendritic morpholog...

Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) and the Dynamics of Visual Bistable Perception.

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is widely used for clinical applications, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. One candidate pathway that might mediate the effects of tVNS is an increase in GABAergic neurotransmission. In this study, we investigated the effect of tVNS on visual bistable perception, which is highly coupled to GABA. Participants were 34 healthy young subjects. We used a static (Necker cube) and a dynamic (structure from motion) bistable perception task. Each subject...

Bidirectional Cause-Effect Relationship Between Urinary Interleukin-6 and Mood, Irritation, and Mental Activity in a Breast Cancer Survivor.

This "integrative single-case study" investigated the bidirectional cause and effect relations between various emotional states (i.e., mood, irritation, mental activity) and urinary IL-6 levels in a 49-year-old female breast cancer survivor (woman) under conditions of "life as it is lived." During a period of 28 days, the patient collected her entire urine in 12-h intervals for IL-6 measurement and completed each morning and evening a list of adjectives regarding mood, irritation, and mental activity (55 me...

Decreased Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of the Salience Network in Drug-Naïve Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have difficulty in switching between obsessive thought and compulsive behavior, which may be related to the dysfunction of the salience network (SN). However, little is known about the changes in intra- and inter- intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the SN in patients with OCD. In this study, we parceled the SN into 19 subregions and investigated iFC changes for each of these subregions in 40 drug-naïve patients with OCD and 40 healthy controls (HCs) usin...

Downregulation of Neuronal and Dendritic Connexin36-Made Electrical Synapses Without Glutamatergic Axon Terminals in Spinal Anterior Horn Cells From the Early Stage of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Connexin36 (Cx36) forms gap junctions between neurons, which are called electrical synapses, enabling adjacent neurons to communicate directly. The participation of chemical synapses in neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has long been indicated, but it remains unclear whether electrical synapses are involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. We performed extensive immunopathological analyses using mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) transgenic mice and their littermates to investigate wheth...

Topological Pattern Recognition of Severe Alzheimer's Disease via Regularized Supervised Learning of EEG Complexity.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder with gradual memory loss that correlates to cognitive deficits in the elderly population. Recent studies have shown the potentials of machine learning algorithms to identify biomarkers and functional brain activity patterns across various AD stages using electroencephalography (EEG). In this study, we aim to discover the altered spatio-temporal patterns of EEG complexity associated with AD pathology in different severity levels. We employed the multis...

Inhibition of NF-κB Signaling Pathway by Resveratrol Improves Spinal Cord Injury.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can have a significant impact on an individual's life. Herein, we discuss how resveratrol improves SCI by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Evidences show resveratrol suppresses NF-κB signaling pathway to exert its beneficial effects on various diseases. NF-κB signaling pathway plays a significant role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of SCI including increase in inflammation, augmentation of damage caused by ...

Unbiased Analysis of Item-Specific Multi-Voxel Activation Patterns Across Learning.

Recent work has highlighted that multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) can be severely biased when BOLD response estimation involves systematic imbalance in model regressor correlations. This problem occurs in situations where trial types of interest are temporally dependent and the associated BOLD activity overlaps. For example, in learning paradigms early and late learning stage trials are inherently ordered. It has been shown empirically that MVPAs assessing consecutive learning stages can be substantially...

Mitochondria and Mood: Mitochondrial Dysfunction as a Key Player in the Manifestation of Depression.

Human and animal studies suggest an intriguing link between mitochondrial diseases and depression. Although depression has historically been linked to alterations in monoaminergic pharmacology and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, new data increasingly implicate broader forms of dampened plasticity, including plasticity within the cell. Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, and they also regulate brain function through oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this paper, we make the case tha...

Commentary: Locus Coeruleus Ablation Exacerbates Cognitive Deficits, Neuropathology, and Lethality in P301S Tau Transgenic Mice.

Effects of Oxytocin on Facial Expression and Identity Working Memory Are Found in Females but Not Males.

Although oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to increase the ability of face perception and processing, no study has explored whether it could improve the performance of working memory for emotional expression information in males and females. Thus, we performed a double-blind, mixed-design, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of OXT on temporary maintenance/manipulation of facial information through a facial expression (EMO) vs. identity (ID) working memory task, both for males ( = 45) and female...


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