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PubMed Journal Database | Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B RSS

07:54 EDT 26th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 133 from Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B

Gene deletion of Corynespora cassiicola cassiicolin Cas1 suppresses virulence in the rubber tree.

Corynespora cassiicola is an ascomycete fungus causing important damages in a wide range of plant hosts, including rubber tree. The small secreted protein cassiicolin is suspected to play a role in the onset of the disease in rubber tree, based on toxicity and gene expression profiles. However, its exact contribution to virulence, compared to other putative effectors, remains unclear. We created a deletion mutant targeting the cassiicolin gene Cas1 from the highly aggressive isolate CCP. Wild-type CCP and m...

Elucidation of substrate specificities of decorating enzymes involved in mannosylerythritol lipid production by cross-species complementation.

Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are surface active molecules produced by many basidiomycetous fungi. MELs consist of a mannosylerythritol disaccharide, which is acylated with short and medium chain fatty acids at the mannosyl moiety. A gene cluster composed of five genes is required for MEL biosynthesis. Here we show that the plant pathogenic fungus Ustilago hordei secretes these glycolipids under nitrogen starvation conditions. In contrast to MELs produced by the closely related fungus Ustilago maydis tho...

Genomic analysis provides insights into the transmission and pathogenicity of Talaromyces marneffei.

Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) is a medically important opportunistic dimorphic fungus that infects both humans and bamboo rats. However, the mechanisms of transmission and pathogenicity of T. marneffei are poorly understood. In our study, we combined Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies to sequence and assemble a complete genome of T. marneffei. To elucidate the transmission route and source, we sequenced three additional T. marneffei isolates using Illumina sequencing technology. Variations a...

The LaeA orthologue in Epichloë festucae is required for symbiotic interaction with Lolium perenne.

LaeA is a conserved global regulator of secondary metabolism and development in fungi. It is often required for successful pathogenic interactions. In this study, the laeA homologue in the fungal grass endophyte E. festucae was deleted and functionally characterised in vitro and its role in the mutualistic E. festucae interaction with Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) was determined. We showed that laeA in E. festucae is required for normal hyphal morphology, resistance to oxidative stress, and conidiatio...

The adenylate cyclase UvAc1 and phosphodiesterase UvPdeH control the intracellular cAMP level, development, and pathogenicity of the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens.

The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway plays pleiotropic roles in regulating development and pathogenicity in eukaryotes. cAMP is a second messenger that is important for the activation of downstream pathways. The intracellular cAMP level is modulated mainly by its biosynthesis, which is catalyzed by adenylate cyclases (ACs), and hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we identified the AC UvAc1 and the cAMP high-affinity PDE UvPdeH in the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea vi...

Identification of a gene cluster for the synthesis of the plant hormone abscisic acid in the plant pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans.

Leptosphaeria maculans is an ascomycetous fungus that causes the disease blackleg on Brassica napus (canola). In spite of the importance of the disease worldwide, the mechanisms of disease development are poorly understood. Secondary metabolites, which are one of the common virulence factors of pathogenic fungi, have not been extensively explored from this fungus. An RNA-seq dataset was examined to find genes responsible for secondary metabolite synthesis by this fungus during infection. One polyketide synt...

Hydrogen sulfide, a novel small molecule signalling agent, participates in the regulation of ganoderic acids biosynthesis induced by heat stress in Ganoderma lucidum.

Hydrogen sulfide (HS), an emerging small-molecule signalling agent, was recently shown to play a significant role in many physiological processes, but relatively few studies have been conducted on microorganisms compared with mammals and plants. By studying the pretreatment of HS donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and the scavenger hypotaurine (HT) and Cystathionine β-synthase silenced strains, we found that HS could alleviate the HS-induced ganoderic acids (GAs) biosynthesis. Our transcriptome results also ...

The mode of mitosis is dramatically modified by deletion of a single nuclear pore complex gene in Aspergillus nidulans.

Nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins (Nups) play multiple roles during mitosis. In this study we expand these roles and reveal that in Aspergillus nidulans, compromising the core Nup84-120 subcomplex of the NPC modifies the mitotic behavior of the nuclear envelope (NE). In wildtype cells, the NE undergoes simultaneous double pinching events to separate daughter nuclei during mitotic exit, whereas in Nup84-120 complex mutants, only one restriction of the NE is observed. Investigating the basis for this modifi...

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene replacement in the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica.

The basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica, has the ability to express industrially beneficial biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme (PaE) and glycolipids. In this study, we developed a highly efficient gene-targeting method in P. antarctica using a CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing approach. Transformation of protoplast cells was achieved by incubation with a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex prepared by mixing the Cas9 protein with a single-guide RNA together with donor DNA (dDNA) containing a selectable mark...

Recognition and delineation of yeast genera based on genomic data: Lessons from Trichosporonales.

Delineation and characterization of genera in Trichosporonales (Agaricomycotina, Basidiomycota) was performed using 24 haploid and 3 naturally occurring hybrid genomes, with 3 Tremellales genomes used as outgroups. Orthologous group analysis of those genomes showed presence-absence patterns of orthologs that were consistent with the genus classifications. Many shared unique orthologs were identified in the well-supported lineages (genera Apiotrichum and Trichosporon), supporting the definitions of the gener...

Genome-wide and functional analyses of tyrosine kinase-like family genes reveal potential roles in development and virulence in mosquito pathogen Pythium guiyangense.

The tyrosine kinase-like (TKL) gene family is widely existed in most eukaryotes and participates in many biological processes, however, has been rarely studied in oomycetes. In this study we performed bioinformatic and experimental analyses to characterize TKLs in Pythium guiyangense, a promising mosquito biological control agent. Our results revealed that TKLs were widely distributed in all the detected oomycetes, but were largely expanded in P. guiyangense in a species-specific expansion manner. The expan...

CRISPR-Cas9-mediated disruption of the HMG-CoA reductase genes of Mucor circinelloides and subcellular localization of the encoded enzymes.

Terpenoid compounds, such as sterols, carotenoids or the prenyl groups of various proteins are synthesized via the mevalonate pathway. A rate-limiting step of this pathway is the conversion of 3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) to mevalonic acid catalyzed by the HMG-CoA reductase. Activity of this enzyme may affect several biological processes, from the synthesis of terpenoid metabolites to the adaptation to various environmental conditions. In this study, the three HMG-CoA reductase genes (i.e. hmgR1, hmgR2 an...

Identification of the gene cluster for bistropolone-humulene meroterpenoid biosynthesis in Phoma sp.

Eupenifeldin, a bistropolone meroterpenoid, was first discovered as an antitumor agent from the fungus Eupenicillium brefeldianum. We also isolated this compound and a new congener from a strain of Phoma sp. (CGMCC 10481), and evaluated their antitumor effects. Eupenifeldin showed potent in vitro anti-glioma activity. This tropolone-humulene-tropolone meroterpenoid could be originated from two units of tropolone orthoquinone methides and a 10-hydroxyhumulene moiety via hetero-Diels-Alder reactions. To explo...

Mutations in the Phosphatase Domain of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase Result in the Transcriptional Activation of the Alternative Oxidase and Gluconeogenic Pathways in Podospora anserina.

By screening suppressors of a respiratory mutant lacking a functional cytochrome pathway in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, we isolated a mutation located in the phosphatase domain of the bi-functional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase-2). We show that the inactivation of the phosphatase but not of the kinase domain is responsible for the suppressor effect that results from the activation of the RSEs transcription factors that control expression of AOX, an ...

Chromatin modification factors in plant pathogenic fungi: insights from Ustilago maydis.

Adaptation to the environment is a requirement for the survival of every organism. For pathogenic fungi this also implies coping with the different conditions that occur during the infection cycle. After detecting changes to external media, organisms must modify their gene expression patterns in order to accommodate the new circumstances. Control of gene expression is a complex process that involves the coordinated action of multiple regulatory elements. Chromatin modification is a well-known mechanism for ...

The Role of Fungi in C. difficile Infection: An Underappreciated Transkingdom Interaction.

Novel culture independent technologies have further elucidated the composition of the human mycobiome, though the role of fungi in human health and disease remains largely unknown. Recent studies have suggested conflicting roles for fungi in the gastrointestinal tract, underscoring the complexity of the interactions between the mycobiome, its bacterial counterpart, and the host. One key example is the observation that fungal taxa are overrepresented in patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI),...

The role of GYP-3 in cellular morphogenesis of Neurospora crassa: Analyzing its relationship with the polarisome.

In fungal hyphae multiple protein complexes assemble at sites of apical growth to maintain cell polarity. The polarisome, which in Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of Spa2, Pea2, Bud6 and Bni1 is described as a small network of functionally related proteins that regulate polarized growth. In yeast Msb3 and Msb4 are considered polarisome components since both proteins interact directly with Spa2 and are involved in Bni1-nucleated actin assembly in vivo. Additionally they regulate exocytosis through their GA...

Genome-wide analysis of Fusarium verticillioides reveals inter-kingdom contribution of horizontal gene transfer to the expansion of metabolism.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is believed to shape genomes by facilitating the rapid acquisition of adaptive traits. We hypothesized that the economically important fungus Fusarium verticillioides is an excellent candidate for investigating the potential impact of HGT on the expansion of metabolic activities given its soilborne nature and versatile lifestyle as both a symptomless endophyte as well as a maize pathogen. To test this hypothesis, we used a phylogenomic pipeline followed by manual curation to p...

GENOTYPES AND POPULATION GENETICS OF CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS AND CRYPTOCOCCUS GATTII SPECIES COMPLEXES IN EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA.

A total of 476 European isolates (310 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, 150 C. neoformans var. neoformans, and 16 C. gattii species complex) from both clinical and environmental sources were analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses were performed. Sequence analysis identified 74 sequence types among C. neoformans var. neoformans (VNIV), 65 among C. neoformans var. grubii (56 VNI, 8 VNII, 1 VNB), and 5 among the C. gattii species complex (4 VGI and 1 VGIV) isol...

Shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the environmental regulation of secondary metabolite ganoderic acid in Ganoderma lucidum using physiological and genetic methods.

The secondary metabolites of fungi are often produced at very low concentrations, and until recently the regulatory mechanisms of secondary metabolite biosynthesis have been unclear. Ganoderma lucidum is a macrofungus that is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine or medicinal mushroom: ganoderic acid (GA) is one of the main active ingredients. Here, we review research from the last decade on which and how environmental factors regulate GA biosynthesis. These environmental factors are mainly three co...

Profound mycobiome differences between segregated mouse colonies do not influence Th17 responses to a newly introduced gut fungal commensal.

Gut mycobiota dysbiosis can negatively impact the outcome of several diseases of inflammatory origin, suggesting a role of the mycobiota in influencing the host immunity. However, it is unknown whether the gut mycobiota composition can create an immune environment that would influence the immune response to a newly introduced intestinal fungus. Using ITS1 deep sequencing, we evaluated the mycobiome structure of C57BL/6J mice acquired from Jackson (JAX) or bred in a controlled environment at our own mouse fa...

SUMOlock reveals a more complete Aspergillus nidulans SUMOylome.

SUMOylation, covalent attachment of the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO to proteins, regulates protein interactions and activity and plays a crucial role in the regulation of many key cellular processes. Understanding the roles of SUMO in these processes ultimately requires identification of the proteins that are SUMOylated in the organism under study. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans serves as an excellent model for many aspects of fungal biology, and it would be of great value to det...

Disruption of putative short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases compromised free radical scavenging, conidiogenesis, and pathogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae.

Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Scad) mediated β-oxidation serves as the fastest route for generating essential energies required to support the survival of organisms under stress or starvation. In this study, we identified three putative SCAD genes in the genome of the globally destructive rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, named as MoSCAD1, MoSCAD2, and MoSCAD3. To elucidate their function, we deployed targeted gene deletion strategy to investigate individual and the combined influence of MoSCAD...

The velvet protein VeA functions in asexual cycle, stress tolerance and transcriptional regulation of Beauveria bassiana.

VeA is a key velvet protein that regulates sexual/asexual development and secondary metabolism in filamentous fungi, particularly Aspergilli, but has not been explored yet in asexual insect mycopathogens, such as Beauveria bassiana. Here, we report a localization of B. bassiana VeA in the cytoplasm of hyphal cells exposed to either light or dark cue and its migration to the nucleus only in darkness. Deletion of veA resulted in facilitated hyphal growth and decreased cell length on rich media, light growth d...

A strikingly-angled spindle mediates nuclear migration during colonization of rice cells infected by Magnaporthe oryzae.

To cause rice blast disease, Magnaporthe oryzae must properly organize microtubules and position nuclei during colonization of host cells. Live cell confocal imaging of fluorescently-tagged microtubules and nuclei of M. oryzae invasive hyphae reveals that microtubules form a cage-like arrangement around nuclei during interphase and that the mitotic spindle forms and mediates nuclear migration while integrity of the nuclear envelope is lost. Our results also unveil a strikingly-angled spindle during nuclear ...


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