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08:52 EDT 23rd October 2019 | BioPortfolio

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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 180 from GigaScience

A chromosomal-level genome assembly for the giant African snail Achatina fulica.

Achatina fulica, the giant African snail, is the largest terrestrial mollusk species. Owing to its voracious appetite, wide environmental adaptability, high growth rate, and reproductive capacity, it has become an invasive species across the world, mainly in Southeast Asia, Japan, the western Pacific islands, and China. This pest can damage agricultural crops and is an intermediate host of many parasites that can threaten human health. However, genomic information of A. fulica remains limited, hindering gen...

IKAP-Identifying K mAjor cell Population groups in single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis.

In single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis, clustering cells into groups and differentiating cell groups by differentially expressed (DE) genes are 2 separate steps for investigating cell identity. However, the ability to differentiate between cell groups could be affected by clustering. This interdependency often creates a bottleneck in the analysis pipeline, requiring researchers to repeat these 2 steps multiple times by setting different clustering parameters to identify a set of cell groups that are more di...

Draft genome sequence of Solanum aethiopicum provides insights into disease resistance, drought tolerance, and the evolution of the genome.

The African eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) is a nutritious traditional vegetable used in many African countries, including Uganda and Nigeria. It is thought to have been domesticated in Africa from its wild relative, Solanum anguivi. S. aethiopicum has been routinely used as a source of disease resistance genes for several Solanaceae crops, including Solanum melongena. A lack of genomic resources has meant that breeding of S. aethiopicum has lagged behind other vegetable crops.

Genome sequence of the Chinese white wax scale insect Ericerus pela: the first draft genome for the Coccidae family of scale insects.

The Chinese white wax scale insect, Ericerus pela, is best known for producing wax, which has been widely used in candle production, casting, Chinese medicine, and wax printing products for thousands of years. The secretion of wax, and other unusual features of scale insects, is thought to be an adaptation to their change from an ancestral ground-dwelling lifestyle to a sedentary lifestyle on the higher parts of plants. As well as helping to improve its economic value, studies of E. pela might also help to ...

Hybrid de novo genome assembly of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima).

The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is widely cultivated in China for nut production. This plant also plays an important ecological role in afforestation and ecosystem services. To facilitate and expand the use of C. mollissima for breeding and its genetic improvement, we report here the whole-genome sequence of C. mollissima.

A draft genome assembly of halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica, a plant that performs C4 photosynthesis within individual cells.

The halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica performs complete C4 photosynthesis within individual cells (SCC4), which is distinct from typical C4 plants, which require the collaboration of 2 types of photosynthetic cells. However, despite SCC4 plants having features that are valuable in engineering higher photosynthetic efficiencies in agriculturally important C3 species such as rice, there are no reported sequenced SCC4 plant genomes, limiting our understanding of the mechanisms involved in, and evolution of, SCC4 p...

ascend: R package for analysis of single-cell RNA-seq data.

Recent developments in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) platforms have vastly increased the number of cells typically assayed in an experiment. Analysis of scRNA-seq data is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring careful consideration of the application of statistical methods with respect to the underlying biology. Few analysis packages exist that are at once robust, are computationally fast, and allow flexible integration with other bioinformatics tools and methods.

VAPPER: High-throughput variant antigen profiling in African trypanosomes of livestock.

Analysing variant antigen gene families on a population scale is a difficult challenge for conventional methods of read mapping and variant calling due to the great variability in sequence, copy number, and genomic loci. In African trypanosomes, hemoparasites of humans and animals, this is complicated by variant antigen repertoires containing hundreds of genes subject to various degrees of sequence recombination.

Genomic evidence of neo-sex chromosomes in the eastern yellow robin.

Understanding sex-biased natural selection can be enhanced by access to well-annotated chromosomes including ones inherited in sex-specific fashion. The eastern yellow robin (EYR) is an endemic Australian songbird inferred to have experienced climate-driven sex-biased selection and is a prominent model for studying mitochondrial-nuclear interactions in the wild. However, the lack of an EYR reference genome containing both sex chromosomes (in birds, a female bearing Z and W chromosomes) limits efforts to und...

rnaSPAdes: a de novo transcriptome assembler and its application to RNA-Seq data.

The possibility of generating large RNA-sequencing datasets has led to development of various reference-based and de novo transcriptome assemblers with their own strengths and limitations. While reference-based tools are widely used in various transcriptomic studies, their application is limited to the organisms with finished and well-annotated genomes. De novo transcriptome reconstruction from short reads remains an open challenging problem, which is complicated by the varying expression levels across diff...

High-quality Schistosoma haematobium genome achieved by single-molecule and long-range sequencing.

Schistosoma haematobium causes urogenital schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting >100 million people worldwide. Chronic infection with this parasitic trematode can lead to urogenital conditions including female genital schistosomiasis and bladder cancer. At the molecular level, little is known about this blood fluke and the pathogenesis of the disease that it causes. To support molecular studies of this carcinogenic worm, we reported a draft genome for S. haematobium in 2012. Although a use...

Evaluation of computational genotyping of structural variation for clinical diagnoses.

Structural variation (SV) plays a pivotal role in genetic disease. The discovery of SVs based on short DNA sequence reads from next-generation DNA sequence methods is error-prone, with low sensitivity and high false discovery rates. These shortcomings can be partially overcome with extensive orthogonal validation methods or use of long reads, but the current cost precludes their application for routine clinical diagnostics. In contrast, SV genotyping of known sites of SV occurrence is relatively robust and ...

rCASC: reproducible classification analysis of single-cell sequencing data.

Single-cell RNA sequencing is essential for investigating cellular heterogeneity and highlighting cell subpopulation-specific signatures. Single-cell sequencing applications have spread from conventional RNA sequencing to epigenomics, e.g., ATAC-seq. Many related algorithms and tools have been developed, but few computational workflows provide analysis flexibility while also achieving functional (i.e., information about the data and the tools used are saved as metadata) and computational reproducibility (i....

Precision nomenclature for the new genomics.

The confluence of two scientific disciplines may lead to nomenclature conflicts that require new terms while respecting historical definitions. This is the situation with the current state of cytology and genomics, which offer examples of distinct nomenclature and vocabularies that require reconciliation. In this article, we propose the new terms C-scaffold (for chromosome-scale assemblies of sequenced DNA fragments, commonly named scaffolds) and scaffotype (the resulting collection of C-scaffolds that repr...

A high-quality genome assembly for the endangered golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

The golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is an endangered colobine species endemic to China, which has several distinct traits including a unique social structure. Although a genome assembly for R. roxellana is available, it is incomplete and fragmented because it was constructed using short-read sequencing technology. Thus, important information such as genome structural variation and repeat sequences may be absent.

Comparison of single-nucleotide variants identified by Illumina and Oxford Nanopore technologies in the context of a potential outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

We aimed to compare Illumina and Oxford Nanopore Technology sequencing data from the 2 isolates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 to determine whether concordant single-nucleotide variants were identified and whether inference of relatedness was consistent with the 2 technologies.

Metabolic responses of rice source and sink organs during recovery from combined drought and heat stress in the field.

Drought and heat stress effects on rice have been extensively studied, in particular during the sensitive flowering and grain-filling stages. However, in the field these stresses usually occur together because reduced transpirational cooling under drought conditions results in increased plant tissue temperature. In addition, environmental stresses are usually transient and the ability to efficiently recover from stress may be at least as important for overall stress tolerance as the direct stress response i...

A chromosome-level draft genome of the grain aphid Sitobion miscanthi.

Sitobion miscanthi is an ideal model for studying host plant specificity, parthenogenesis-based phenotypic plasticity, and interactions between insects and other species of various trophic levels, such as viruses, bacteria, plants, and natural enemies. However, the genome information for this species has not yet to be sequenced and published. Here, we analyzed the entire genome of a parthenogenetic female aphid colony using Pacific Biosciences long-read sequencing and Hi-C data to generate chromosome-length...

The draft genome sequence of the spider Dysdera silvatica (Araneae, Dysderidae): A valuable resource for functional and evolutionary genomic studies in chelicerates.

We present the draft genome sequence of Dysdera silvatica, a nocturnal ground-dwelling spider from a genus that has undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation in the Canary Islands.

A chromosomal-level genome assembly for the insect vector for Chagas disease, Triatoma rubrofasciata.

Triatoma rubrofasciata is a widespread pathogen vector for Chagas disease, an illness that affects approximately 7 million people worldwide. Despite its importance to human health, its evolutionary origin has not been conclusively determined. A reference genome for T. rubrofasciata is not yet available.

De novo genome assembly of the endangered Acer yangbiense, a plant species with extremely small populations endemic to Yunnan Province, China.

Acer yangbiense is a newly described critically endangered endemic maple tree confined to Yangbi County in Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was included in a programme for rescuing the most threatened species in China, focusing on "plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP)".

PRSice-2: Polygenic Risk Score software for biobank-scale data.

Polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses have become an integral part of biomedical research, exploited to gain insights into shared aetiology among traits, to control for genomic profile in experimental studies, and to strengthen causal inference, among a range of applications. Substantial efforts are now devoted to biobank projects to collect large genetic and phenotypic data, providing unprecedented opportunity for genetic discovery and applications. To process the large-scale data provided by such biobank re...

A collection of yeast cellular electron cryotomography data.

Cells are powered by a large set of macromolecular complexes, which work together in a crowded environment. The in situ mechanisms of these complexes are unclear because their 3D distribution, organization, and interactions are largely unknown. Electron cryotomography (cryo-ET) can address these knowledge gaps because it produces cryotomograms-3D images that reveal biological structure at ∼4-nm resolution. Cryo-ET uses no fixation, dehydration, staining, or plastic embedment, so cellular features are visu...

Screening methods for detection of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex fingerprints in next-generation sequencing data derived from skeletal samples.

Recent advances in ancient DNA studies, especially in increasing isolated DNA yields and quality, have opened the possibility of analysis of ancient host microbiome. However, such pitfalls as spurious identification of pathogens based on fragmentary data or environmental contamination could lead to incorrect epidaemiological conclusions. Within the Mycobacterium genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members responsible for tuberculosis share up to ∼99% genomic sequence identity, while other more dista...

PPR-Meta: a tool for identifying phages and plasmids from metagenomic fragments using deep learning.

Phages and plasmids are the major components of mobile genetic elements, and fragments from such elements generally co-exist with chromosome-derived fragments in sequenced metagenomic data. However, there is a lack of efficient methods that can simultaneously identify phages and plasmids in metagenomic data, and the existing tools identifying either phages or plasmids have not yet presented satisfactory performance.

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