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PubMed Journal Database | Global change biology RSS

00:57 EDT 20th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

BioPortfolio aims to cross reference relevant information on published papers, clinical trials and news associated with selected topics - speciality.

For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 531 from Global change biology

Fast attrition of springtail communities by experimental drought and richness-decomposition relationships across Europe.

Soil fauna play a fundamental role on key ecosystem functions like organic matter decomposition, although how local assemblages are responding to climate change and whether these changes may have consequences to ecosystem functioning is less clear. Previous studies have revealed that a continued environmental stress may result in poorer communities by filtering out the most sensitive species. However, these experiments have rarely been applied to climate change factors combining multiyear and multisite stan...

Terrestrial Gross Primary Production: Using NIR to Scale from Site to Globe.

Terrestrial photosynthesis is the largest and one of the most uncertain fluxes in the global carbon cycle. We find that NIR , a remotely sensed measure of canopy structure, accurately predicts photosynthesis at FLUXNET validation sites at monthly to annual timescales (R = 0.68), without the need for difficult to acquire information about environmental factors that constrain photosynthesis at short timescales. Scaling the relationship between GPP and NIR from FLUXNET eddy covariance sites, we estimate global...

Ocean acidification refugia in variable environments.

Climate change refugia in the terrestrial biosphere are areas where species are protected from global environmental change and arise from natural heterogeneity in landscapes and climate. Within the marine realm, ocean acidification, or the global decline in seawater pH, remains a pervasive threat to organisms and ecosystems. Natural variability in seawater carbon dioxide (CO ) chemistry, however, presents an opportunity to identify ocean acidification refugia (OAR) for marine species. Here, we review the li...

Integrating anthropogenic factors into regional-scale species distribution models - a novel application in the imperiled sagebrush biome.

Species distribution models (SDM) that rely on regional-scale environmental variables will play a key role in forecasting species occurrence in the face of climate change. However, in the Anthropocene, a number of local-scale anthropogenic variables, including wildfire history, land-use change, invasive species, and ecological restoration practices can override regional-scale variables to drive patterns of species distribution. Incorporating these human-induced factors into SDMs remains a major research cha...

The climatic drivers of primary Picea forest growth along the Carpathian arc are changing under rising temperatures.

Climatic constraints on tree growth mediate an important link between terrestrial and atmospheric carbon pools. Tree rings provide valuable information on climate-driven growth patterns, but existing data tend to be biased towards older trees on climatically extreme sites. Understanding climate change responses of biogeographic regions requires data that integrate spatial variability in growing conditions and forest structure. We analyzed both temporal (c. 1901-2010) and spatial variation in radial growth p...

Anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment enhances soil carbon accumulation by impacting saprotrophs rather than ectomycorrhizal fungal activity.

There is evidence that anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition enhances carbon (C) sequestration in boreal forest soils. However, it is unclear how free-living saprotrophs (bacteria and fungi, SAP) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi responses to N addition impact soil C dynamics. Our aim was to investigate how SAP and EM communities are impacted by N enrichment and to estimate whether these changes influence decay of litter and humus. We conducted a long-term experiment in northern Sweden, maintained since 2004, ...

Seabird nutrient subsidies alter patterns of algal abundance and fish biomass on coral reefs following a bleaching event.

Cross-ecosystem nutrient subsidies play a key role in the structure and dynamics of recipient communities, but human activities are disrupting these links. Because nutrient subsidies may also enhance community stability, the effects of losing these inputs may be exacerbated in the face of increasing climate-related disturbances. Nutrients from seabirds nesting on oceanic islands enhance the productivity and functioning of adjacent coral reefs, but it is unknown whether these subsidies affect the response of...

Fixing a snag in carbon emissions estimates from wildfires.

Wildfire is an essential earth-system process, impacting ecosystem processes and the carbon cycle. Forest fires are becoming more frequent and severe, yet gaps exist in the modeling of fire on vegetation and carbon dynamics. Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide (CO ) emissions from wildfires include increasing tree harvest, largely based on the public assumption that fires burn live forests to the ground, despite observations indicating that less than 5% of mature tree biomass is actually consumed. This m...

Experimental warming alters the community composition, diversity, and N fixation activity of peat moss (Sphagnum fallax) microbiomes.

Sphagnum-dominated peatlands comprise a globally important pool of soil carbon (C) and are vulnerable to climate change. While peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum are known to harbor diverse microbial communities that mediate C and nitrogen (N) cycling in peatlands, the effects of climate change on Sphagnum microbiome composition and functioning are largely unknown. We investigated the impacts of experimental whole-ecosystem warming on the Sphagnum moss microbiome, focusing on N fixing microorganisms (diazotr...

Disentangling how climate change can affect an aquatic food web by combining multiple experimental approaches.

Predicting the biological effects of climate change presents major challenges due to the interplay of potential biotic and abiotic mechanisms. Climate change can create unexpected outcomes by altering species interactions, and uncertainty over the ability of species to develop in situ tolerance or track environmental change further hampers meaningful predictions. As multiple climatic variables shift in concert, their potential interactions further complicate ecosystem responses. Despite awareness of these c...

Intensified inundation shifts a freshwater wetland from a CO sink to a source.

Climate change has altered global precipitation patterns and has led to greater variation in hydrological conditions. Wetlands are important globally for their soil carbon storage. Given that wetland carbon processes are primarily driven by hydrology, a comprehensive understanding of the effect of inundation is needed. In this study, we evaluated the effect of water level and inundation duration on carbon dioxide (CO ) fluxes by analyzing a 10-year (2008-2017) eddy covariance dataset from a seasonally-inund...

Strong photosynthetic acclimation and enhanced water-use efficiency in grassland functional groups persist over 21 years of CO enrichment, independent of nitrogen supply.

Uncertainty about long-term leaf-level responses to atmospheric CO rise is a major knowledge gap that exists because of limited empirical data. Thus, it remains unclear how responses of leaf gas exchange to elevated CO vary among plant species and functional groups, or across different levels of nutrient supply, and whether they persist over time for long-lived perennials. Here we report effects of elevated CO on rates of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in 14 perennial grassland species from fou...

Pathogen exposure disrupts an organism's ability to cope with thermal stress.

As a result of global climate change, species are experiencing an escalation in the severity and regularity of extreme thermal events. With patterns of disease distribution and transmission predicted to undergo considerable shifts in the coming years, the interplay between temperature and pathogen exposure will likely determine the capacity of a population to persist under the dual threat of global change and infectious disease. In this study, we investigated how exposure to a pathogen impacts an individual...

Opportunities for behavioral rescue under rapid environmental change.

Laboratory measurements of physiological and demographic tolerances are important to understanding the impact of climate change on species diversity; however, it has been recognized that forecasts based solely on these laboratory estimates overestimate risk by omitting the capacity for species to utilize microclimatic variation via behavioral adjustments in activity patterns or habitat choice. The complex, and often context-dependent nature, of microclimate utilization has been an impediment to the advancem...

CO emissions from an undrained tropical peatland: Interacting influences of temperature, shading and water table depth.

Emission of CO from tropical peatlands is an important component of the global carbon budget. Over days to months, these fluxes are largely controlled by water table depth. However, the diurnal cycle is less well understood, in part, because most measurements have been collected daily at midday. We used an automated chamber system to make hourly measurements of peat surface CO emissions from chambers root-cut to 30cm. We then used these data to disentangle the relationship between temperature, water table, ...

Accumulation of soil carbon under elevated CO unaffected by warming and drought.

Elevated atmospheric CO concentration (eCO ) and climate change may substantially alter soil carbon (C) dynamics and thus feedback to future climate. However, only very few field experiments world-wide have combined eCO with both warming and changes in precipitation in order to study the potential combined effects of changes in these fundamental drivers of C cycling in ecosystems. We exposed a temperate heath/grassland to eCO , warming, and drought, in all combinations for 8 years. At the end of the study, ...

Invited Review: IPCC, Agriculture and Food - A Case of Shifting Cultivation and History.

Since 1990 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has produced five Assessment Reports (ARs), in which agriculture as the production of food for humans via crops and livestock have featured in one form or another. A constructed data base of the ca. 2,100 cited experiments and simulations in the five ARs were analysed with respect to impacts on yields via crop type, region and whether or not adaptation was included. Quantitative data on impacts and adaptation in livestock farming have been extr...

The response of cyanobacteria and phytoplankton abundance to warming, extreme rainfall events and nutrient enrichment.

Cyanobacterial blooms are an increasing threat to water quality and global water security caused by the nutrient enrichment of freshwaters. There is also a broad consensus that blooms are increasing with global warming, but the impacts of other concomitant environmental changes, such as an increase in extreme rainfall events, may affect this response. One of the potential effects of high rainfall events on phytoplankton communities is greater loss of biomass through hydraulic flushing. Here we used a shallo...

Microbial assemblages reflect environmental heterogeneity in alpine streams.

Alpine streams are dynamic habitats harboring substantial biodiversity across small spatial extents. The diversity of alpine stream biota is largely reflective of environmental heterogeneity stemming from varying hydrological sources. Globally, alpine stream diversity is under threat as meltwater sources recede and stream conditions become increasingly homogeneous. Much attention has been devoted to macroinvertebrate diversity in alpine headwaters, yet to fully understand the breadth of climate change threa...

The relationship between wealth and biodiversity: A test of the Luxury Effect on bird species richness in the developing world.

The Luxury Effect hypothesizes a positive relationship between wealth and biodiversity within urban areas. Understanding how urban development, both in terms of socioeconomic status and the built environment, affects biodiversity can contribute to the sustainable development of cities, and may be especially important in the developing world where current growth in urban populations is most rapid. We tested the Luxury Effect by analysing bird species richness in relation to income levels, as well as human po...

Modelling optimal responses and fitness consequences in a changing Arctic.

Animals must balance a series of costs and benefits while trying to maximize their fitness. For example, an individual may need to choose how much energy to allocate to reproduction versus growth, or how much time to spend on vigilance versus foraging. Their decisions depend on complex interactions between environmental conditions, behavioural plasticity, reproductive biology, and energetic demands. As animals respond to novel environmental conditions caused by climate change, the optimal decisions may shif...

Climate and plant trait strategies determine tree carbon allocation to leaves and mediate future forest productivity.

Forest leaf area has enormous leverage on the carbon cycle because it mediates both forest productivity and resilience to climate extremes. Despite widespread evidence that trees are capable of adjusting to changes in environment across both space and time through modifying carbon allocation to leaves, many vegetation models use fixed carbon allocation schemes independent of environment, which introduces large uncertainties into predictions of future forest responses to atmospheric CO fertilization and anth...

Meta-analysis reveals enhanced growth of marine harmful algae from temperate regions with warming and elevated CO levels.

Elevated pCO and warming may promote algal growth and toxin production, and thereby possibly support the proliferation and toxicity of HABs. Here, we tested whether empirical data supports this hypothesis using a meta-analytic approach and investigated the responses of growth rate and toxin content or toxicity of numerous marine and estuarine HAB species to elevated pCO and warming. Most of the available data on HAB responses towards the two tested climate change variables concerns dinoflagellates, as many ...

Divergent long-term trends and inter-annual variation in ecosystem resource use efficiencies of a southern boreal old black spruce forest 1999-2017.

Long-term trends in ecosystem resource-use efficiencies (RUEs) and their controlling factors are key pieces of information for understanding how an ecosystem responds to climate change. We used continuous eddy-covariance and microclimate data over 1999-2017 from a 120-year-old black spruce stand in central Saskatchewan, Canada, to assess inter-annual variability, long-term trends, and key controlling factors of gross ecosystem production (GEP) and the RUEs of carbon (CUE = net primary production (NPP)/GEP),...

Global patterns of intraspecific leaf trait responses to elevation.

Elevational gradients are often used to quantify how traits of plant species respond to abiotic and biotic environmental variations. Yet, such analyses are frequently restricted spatially and applied along single slopes or mountain ranges. Since we know little on the response of intraspecific leaf traits to elevation across the globe, we here perform a global meta-analysis of leaf traits in 109 plant species located in 4 continents and reported in 71 studies published between 1983 and 2018. We quantified th...


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