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PubMed Journal Database | Health systems and reform RSS

12:12 EST 17th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 52 from Health systems and reform

Financing Common Goods for Health: Fundamental for Health, the Foundation for UHC.

Financing Global Common Goods for Health: When the World is a Country.

"Global functions" of health cooperation refer to those activities that go beyond the boundaries of individual nations to address transnational issues. This paper begins by presenting a taxonomy of global functions and laying out the key value propositions of investing in such functions. Next, it examines the current funding flows to global functions and the estimated price tag, which is large. Given that existing financing mechanisms have not closed the gap, it then proposes a suite of options for directin...

The Case for Public Financing of Environmental Common Goods for Health.

Safeguarding the continued existence of humanity requires building societies that cause minimal disruptions of the essential planetary systems that support life. While major successes have been achieved in improving health in recent decades, threats from the environment may undermine these gains, particularly among vulnerable populations and communities. In this article, we review the rationale for governments to invest in environmental Common Goods for Health (CGH) and identify functions that qualify as su...

When Do Governments Support Common Goods for Health? Four Cases on Surveillance, Traffic Congestion, Road Safety, and Air Pollution.

Common goods such as air, water, climate, and other resources shared by all humanity are under increasing pressure from growing population and advancing globalization of the world economy. Safeguarding these resources is generally considered a government responsibility, as common goods are vulnerable to market failure. However, governments do not always fulfill this role, and face many challenges in doing so. This observation-that governments only sometimes address common goods problems-informs the central ...

International Funding for Global Common Goods for Health: An Analysis Using the Creditor Reporting System and G-FINDER Databases.

West Africa's Ebola epidemic of 2014-2016 exposed, among other problems, the under-funding of transnational global health activities known as global common goods for health (CGH), global functions such as pandemic preparedness and research and development (R&D) for neglected diseases. To mobilize sustainable funding for global CGH, it is critical first to understand existing financing flowing to different types of global CGH. In this study, we estimate trends in international spending for global CGH in 2013...

Financing Common Goods for Health: A Public Administration Perspective from India.

Financing Common Goods for Health: Core Government Functions in Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management.

In the absence of good data on the costs and comparative benefits from investing in health emergency and disaster risk management (EDRM), governments have been reluctant to invest adequately in systems to reduce the risks and consequences of emergencies and disasters. Yet they spend heavily on their response. We describe a set of key functional areas for investment and action in health EDRM, and calculate the costs needed to establish and operate basic health EDRM services in low- and middle-income countrie...

Common Goods for Health: Economic Rationale and Tools for Prioritization.

This paper presents the economic rationale for treating Common Goods for Health (CGH) as priorities for public intervention. We use the concept of market failure as a central argument for identifying CGH and apply cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) as a normative tool to prioritize CGH interventions in public finance decisions. We show that CGH are consistent with traditional lists of public health core functions but cannot be identified separately from non-CGH activities in such lists. We propose a public f...

Leadership Politics and the Evolution of the Universal Health Insurance Reform in Peru.

Peru is now on a path toward achieving universal health coverage (UHC), with 87% of its population covered by health insurance. This paper describes the politics surrounding the agenda setting and policy formulation process that led up to the adoption of Peru's Universal Health Coverage Act in 2009, which has been instrumental in expanding coverage. This reform established a mandatory health insurance system, which includes an Essential Health Benefit Package (Plan Esencial de Aseguramiento en Salud-PEAS) t...

Introduction to Special Issue on Political Economy of Health Financing Reform.

Political Economy of Non-Communicable Diseases: From Unconventional to Essential.

The Political Economy of UHC Reform in Thailand: Lessons for Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

Thailand achieved full population coverage of financial protection for health care in 2002 with successful implementation of the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS). The three public health insurance schemes covered 98.5% of the population by 2015. Current evidence shows a high level of service coverage and financial risk protection and low level of unmet healthcare need, but the path toward UHC was not straightforward. Applying the Political Economy of UHC Reform Framework and the concept of path dependency, t...

Political Analysis for Health Policy Implementation.

Any effort to improve health system performance must address the challenges of policy implementation. This article examines one aspect of implementation-the politics of policy implementation for the health sector, particularly the management of stakeholders in order to help change teams improve the chances of achieving policy objectives. Based on a literature scan of political analyses and descriptions of health policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries, we propose six major categories of st...

Political Economy of Reform under US Federalism: Adopting Single-Payer Health Coverage in New York State.

The US remains the only high-income country that lacks a universal health financing system and instead relies on a fragmented system with the largest segment of the population receiving health insurance through private, voluntary employer-sponsored health insurance plans. While not "universal" in the sense of being mandatory and tax-financed, through a series of reforms, the US has managed to provide some form of health insurance coverage to 90% of the population. Yet, the high cost of this system, the insu...

Political Economy Analysis for Health Financing Reform.

Health financing reform is an inherently political process that alters the distribution of entitlements, responsibilities and resources across the health sector and beyond. As a result, changes in health financing policy affect a range of stakeholders and institutions in ways that can create political obstacles and tensions. As countries pursue health financing policies that support progress towards Universal Health Coverage, the analysis and management of these political concerns must be incorporated in re...

Putting Country Ownership into Practice: The Global Fund and Country Coordinating Mechanisms.

Introduction to Health Systems & Reform 5(2).

Why Health Reforms Fail: Lessons from the 2014 Chilean Attempt to Reform.

In 2014, Chile started a process to reform its private health insurance scheme. A commission was created and released a report with recommendations, but no changes have been introduced yet. This article analyzes that reform process. The analysis included document review and interviews with key stakeholders involved in the process. Results show that although the Commission failed in producing the intended changes, it contributed to opening the debate regarding the Chilean health system, making explicit the d...

Securing Resources for Health Emergency Management.

Correction.

Improving Supply Chain for Essential Drugs in Low-Income Countries: Results from a Large Scale Randomized Experiment in Zambia.

Despite increased investments in procurement of essential medicines, their availability at health facilities remains extremely low in many low- and middle-income countries. The lack of a well-functioning supply chain for essential medicines is often the cause of this poor availability. Using a randomized trial conducted in 439 health facilities and 24 districts in Zambia, this study helps understand the optimal supply chain structure for essential medicines distribution in the public sector in low-income co...

Does the Informal Sector in Kenya Have Financial Potential to Sustainably Prepay for Health Care? Implications for Financing Universal Health Coverage in Low-Income Settings.

Kenya currently lacks evidence on whether income in the informal sector is sustainable and predictable and therefore able to support financing of universal health coverage (UHC). This article demonstrates the financial potential of informal sector entities to sustainably finance UHC in Kenya. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire on the following topics: nature and sustainability of informal sector entities, indicators of financial potential, and socioeconomic status. Both descriptive and m...

Integration of Primary Care with Hospital Services for Sustainable Universal Health Coverage in Singapore.

Primary care services have been developed and extended, with the support of the Singapore government, in order to address the increasing needs of the aging population and noncommunicable diseases and to achieve the goal of universal health care. Though countries across the Asia Pacific aspire to achieve universal coverage, there is no set pathway. In Singapore, various service models, quality assurance methods, and financing mechanisms have been piloted and some have been scaled up. Significant effort has a...

Community Engagement in Support of Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage.

Community engagement describes a complex political process with dynamic negotiation and renegotiation of power and authority between providers and recipients of health care in order to achieve a shared goal of universal health care coverage. Though examples exist of community engagement projects, there is very little guidance on how to implement and embed community engagement as a concerted, integrated, strategic, and sustained component of health systems. Through a series of case studies, this article expl...

Governance Functions to Accelerate Progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in the Asia-Pacific Region.

Many countries in the Asia-Pacific region have committed to universal health coverage (UHC), which is reflected in both their political commitment and the governance actions they have taken in steering their health systems toward the goals of universal access to care and protection from financial hardship. Countries throughout the region are at different stages of development and have different political and governance contexts, which in turn shape how they pursue governance for UHC. This article reviews th...


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