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PubMed Journal Database | Hearing research RSS

00:59 EST 22nd February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 234 from Hearing research

A bio-inspired coding (BIC) strategy for cochlear implants.

A bio-inspired coding (BIC) strategy was implemented in this study with the goal of better representation of spectral and temporal information. The auditory nerve fibers' (ANFs) characteristics such as refractory recovery, facilitation and spatial spread were obtained from ECAP data recorded in 11 CI recipients. These characteristics, together with a non-individualized model-derived adaptation effect, were integrated into the BIC strategy for a better selection of channels. Two variations of the BIC strateg...

Post-natal development of the envelope following response to amplitude modulated sounds in the bat Phyllostomus discolor.

Bats use a large repertoire of calls for social communication, which are often characterized by temporal amplitude and frequency modulations. As bats are considered to be among the few mammalian species capable of vocal learning, the perception of temporal sound modulations should be crucial for juvenile bats to develop social communication abilities. However, the post-natal development of auditory processing of temporal modulations has not been investigated in bats, so far. Here we use the minimally invasi...

The expression of copper transporters associated with the ototoxicity induced by platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents.

Antitumor agents based on platinum have gained a well-established place in the treatment of several forms of cancer. Their efficiency is hampered by serious toxic effects against healthy tissues as well. Ototoxicity is a serious side effect leading to hearing impairment and represents an important issue affecting the patients' quality of life. The currently used platinum chemotherapeutics exert different toxicity towards cochlear cells. The aim of our study was to answer some questions regarding the differe...

Molecular basis and restoration of function deficiencies of Kv7.4 variants associated with inherited hearing loss.

Deafness non-syndromic autosomal dominant 2 (DFNA2) is characterized by symmetric, predominantly high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss that is progressive across all frequencies. The disease is associated with variants of a potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 4 gene, KCNQ4 (Kv7.4). Here, we studied nine recently identified Kv7.4 variants in DFNA2 pedigrees, including V230E, E260K, D262V, Y270H, W275R, G287R, P291L, P291S and S680F. We proved that the variant S680F did not alter the channe...

Generation of a ChAT mouse line without the early onset hearing loss typical of the C57BL/6J strain.

The development of knockin mice with Cre recombinase expressed under the control of the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) has allowed experimental manipulation of cholinergic circuits. However, currently available ChAT mouse lines are on the C57BL/6J strain background, which shows early onset age-related hearing loss attributed to the Cdh23 mutation (a.k.a., the ahl mutation). To develop ChAT mice without accelerated hearing loss, we backcrossed ChAT mice with CBA/CaJ mice that have normal heari...

Neural processes of auditory perception in Heschl's gyrus for upcoming acoustic stimuli in humans.

In the natural environment, attended sounds tend to be perceived much better than unattended sounds. However, the physiological mechanism of how our neural systems direct the state of perceptual attention to prepare for the detection of upcoming acoustic stimuli before auditory stream segregation remains elusive. In this study, based on the direct intracerebral recordings from the auditory cortex in eight epileptic patients with refractory focal seizures, we investigated the neural processing of auditory at...

Age-related changes in the number of cresyl-violet-stained, parvalbumin and NMDAR 2B expressing neurons in the human spiral ganglion.

Animal-studies associate age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) with decreasing number of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in Rosenthal's canal (RC) of cochlea. The excitatory neurotransmitter for SGNs is glutamate (through its receptor NMDAR 2B), which can be neurotoxic through Ca overload. Neurotoxicity is balanced by calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) like Parvalbumin (PV), which is the predominant CBP of the SGNs. To estimate the volume of the RC and total number of SGNs that are immunoreactive to PV and NMD...

Eardrum displacement and strain in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) under quasi-static pressure loads.

The eardrum is the primary component of the middle ear and has been extensively investigated in humans. Measuring the displacement and deformation of the eardrum under different quasi-static loading conditions gives insight in its mechanical behavior and is fundamental in determining the material properties of the eardrum. Currently, little is known about the behavior and material properties of eardrums in non-mammals. To explore the mechanical properties of the eardrum in non-mammalian ears, we investigate...

Bilateral bone conduction stimulation provides reliable binaural cues for localization.

This study aimed to characterize binaural hearing abilities with bone conduction stimulation in simulated conductive hearing loss. Bone conduction hearing devices (BCDs) are a common method of rehabilitating conductive hearing loss. However, little is known about the access these devices provide to binaural cues. To study the ability of BCDs to restore access to binaural cues in conductive loss, normal hearing listeners were plugged unilaterally and bilaterally and localization ability was assessed using a ...

Novel oral multifunctional antioxidant prevents noise-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss.

Oxidative stress is a major contributor to noise-induced hearing loss, the most common cause of hearing loss among military personnel and young adults. HK-2 is a potent, orally-active, multifunctional, redox-modulating drug that has been shown to protect against a wide range of neurological disorders with no observed side effects. HK-2 protected cochlear HEI-OC1 cells against various forms of experimentally-induced oxidative stressors similar to those observed during and after intense noise exposure. The me...

Morphometric linear and angular measurements of the human cochlea in implant patients using 3-dimensional reconstruction.

The present study is the first to evaluate the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and the linear and angular measurements of the cochlea in temporal bones of cochlear implant (CI) recipients. There are no studies evaluating the morphometric measures in subjects after long-term CI use, and this study fills in this gap in current knowledge, greatly important for the design of CI electrodes. Amira based 3-D reconstructions of the cochlea were generated from stained histopathological slides of 15 celloidin-embedded...

Differential cortical and subcortical projection targets of subfields in the core region of mouse auditory cortex.

The core region of the rodent auditory cortex has two areas: the primary auditory area (A1) and the anterior auditory field (AAF). However, the functional difference between these areas is unclear. To elucidate this issue, here we studied the projections from A1 and AAF in mice using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing either a green fluorescent protein or a red fluorescent protein. After mapping A1 and AAF using optical imaging, we injected a distinct AAV vector into each of the two fields at a...

Genetic architecture of Meniere's disease.

Meniere's disease (MD) is a complex disorder of the inner ear that causes vertigo attacks, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), tinnitus and aural fullness. MD has been attributed to an accumulation of endolymph in the cochlear duct. The diagnosis of MD is based on the phenomenological association of clinical symptoms and the demonstration of SNHL during the vertigo attacks. Several evidences support a genetic contribution to MD including differences in the prevalence according to the ethnic backg...

P2RX2 and P2RX4 receptors mediate cation absorption in transitional cells and supporting cells of the utricular macula.

Purinergic receptors protect the cochlea during high-intensity stimulation by providing a parallel shunt pathway through non-sensory neighboring epithelial cells for cation absorption. So far, there is no direct functional evidence for the presence and type/subunit of purinergic receptors in the utricle of the vestibular labyrinth. The goal of the present study was to investigate which purinergic receptors are expressed and carry cation-absorption currents in the utricular transitional cells and macula. Pur...

Intravenously delivered aminoglycoside antibiotics, tobramycin and amikacin, are not ototoxic in mice.

Many drugs on the World Health Organization's list of critical medicines are ototoxic, destroying sensory hair cells within the ear. These drugs preserve life, but patients can experience side effects including permanent hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity was first recognised 80 years ago. However, no preventative treatments have been developed. In order to develop such treatments, we must identify the factors driving hair cell death. In vivo, studies of cell death are typi...

Associations between tinnitus and glaucoma suggest a common mechanism: A clinical and population-based study.

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between tinnitus and glaucoma. We tested this by first completing a clinic-based cross-sectional questionnaire study in which we sent a series of tinnitus-related questions to glaucoma patients and healthy subjects, and then followed up with a large population-based cross-sectional study in which glaucoma and tinnitus were also assessed by questionnaire. For the clinical study, we received 209 responses from glaucoma patients and 109 resp...

Nanomechanical mapping reveals localized stiffening of the basilar membrane after cochlear implantation.

Cochlear implantation leads to many structural changes within the cochlea which can impair residual hearing. In patients with preserved low-frequency hearing, a delayed hearing loss can occur weeks-to-years post-implantation. We explore whether stiffening of the basilar membrane (BM) may be a contributory factor in an animal model. Our objective is to map changes in morphology and Young's modulus of basal and apical areas of the BM after cochlear implantation, using quantitative nanomechanical atomic force ...

Contribution of spectral pinna cues for sound localization in children with congenital unilateral conductive hearing loss after hearing rehabilitation.

Congenital unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL) jeopardizes directional hearing and speech perception in noisy conditions. Potentially, children with congenital UCHL can benefit from fitting a hearing device, such as a bone-conduction device (BCD). However, the literature reports limited benefit from fitting a BCD, and often, surprisingly, relatively good sound localization in the unaided condition is reported. In this study, we hypothesized that the limited benefit with a BCD is related to (i) insuffi...

Amino acid and acetylcholine chemistry in mountain beaver cochlear nucleus and comparisons to pocket gopher, other rodents, and cat.

The mountain beaver and pocket gopher are two rodents that live mostly underground in tunnel systems. Previous studies have suggested that their cochlear nucleus structure, particularly that of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), differs significantly from that of other mammals, that the hearing ability of the pocket gopher is deficient compared to that of other rodents, and that the DCN of the mountain beaver is more responsive to slow oscillations of air pressure than to sounds. We conducted some electroph...

Vascular endothelial growth factor is required for regeneration of auditory hair cells in the avian inner ear.

Hair cells in the auditory organ of the vertebrate inner ear are the sensory receptors that convert acoustic stimuli into electrical signals that are conveyed along the auditory nerve to the brainstem. Hair cells are highly susceptible to ototoxic drugs, infection, and acoustic trauma, which can cause cellular degeneration. In mammals, hair cells that are lost after damage are not replaced, leading to permanent hearing impairments. By contrast, supporting cells in birds and other non-mammalian vertebrates r...

Paired measurements of cochlear function and hair cell count in Dutch-belted rabbits with noise-induced hearing loss.

The effects of noise-induced hearing loss have yet to be studied for the Dutch-belted strain of rabbits, which is the only strain that has been used in studies of the central auditory system. We measured auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), 2f-f distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), and counts of cochlear inner and outer hair cells (IHCs and OHCs, respectively) from confocal images of Myo7a-stained cochlear whole-mounts in unexposed and noise-overexposed, Dutch-belted, male and female rabbits i...

Modeling the characteristics of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in lizards.

Neuronal sensitivity to the interaural time difference of the sound envelope in the mouse inferior colliculus.

We examined the sensitivity of the neurons in the mouse inferior colliculus (IC) to the interaural time differences (ITD) conveyed in the sound envelope. Utilizing optogenetic methods, we compared the responses to the ITD in the envelope of identified glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. More than half of both cell types were sensitive to the envelope ITD, and the ITD curves were aligned at their troughs. Within the physiological ITD range of mice (±50 μs), the ITD curves of both cell types had a higher f...

Atoh1 is required in supporting cells for regeneration of vestibular hair cells in adult mice.

In amniotes, head movements are encoded by two types of vestibular hair cells (type I and type II) with unique morphology, physiology, and innervation. After hair cell destruction in mature rodents, supporting cells regenerate some type II hair cells, but no type I hair cells are replaced. The transcription factor Atoh1 is required for hair cell development, and Atoh1 is upregulated in supporting cells, the hair cell progenitors, in mature chickens and mice following hair cell damage. We investigated whethe...

Topography of vibration frequency responses on the bony tympano-periotic complex of the pilot whale Globicephala macrorhynchus.

In modern Cetacea, the ear bone complex comprises the tympanic and periotic bones forming the tympano-periotic complex (TPC), differing from temporal bone complexes of other mammals in form, construction, position, and possibly function. To elucidate its functioning in sound transmission, we studied the vibration response of 32 pairs of formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde-fixed TPCs of Globicephala macrorhynchus, the short-finned pilot whale (legally obtained in Taiji, Japan). A piezoelectric-crystal-based vibrator...


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