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PubMed Journal Database | Historia, ciencias, saude--Manguinhos RSS

07:04 EDT 24th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 117 from Historia, ciencias, saude--Manguinhos

The fire, the death and the hope.

Jean Gayon: historian and philosopher of biology (Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, June 15, 1940 - Paris, April 28, 2018).

From Bombay to Rio de Janeiro: the circulation of knowledge and the establishment of the Manguinhos laboratory, 1894-1902.

In order to understand the 1900 establishment of the Federal Serum Therapy Institute of Manguinhos and its earliest scientific work, we must analyze the circulation of knowledge and international disputes surrounding antiplague serums and vaccines. This article discusses the development of the first antiplague serum, in Paris, and the trials conducted in India, which started in 1897. It also examines the invention of an antiplague vaccine in Bombay around the same time and the ensuing controversy involving ...

In search of a new Eden in the twentieth century: the Portuguese and the establishment of naturist colonies in Brazil.

This article is part of a project that is studying the beginnings of vegetarianism and naturism in Portugal. It contextualizes the connection between the two realities, then ascertains how widely naturist ideas were spread in Brazil, especially in the Pará region, through the establishment of a short-lived naturist colony in Boim (on the Tapajós river) and the abortive plans to create one on the outskirts of Belém. Other efforts to spread vegetarian and naturist ideas included the importing of Portuguese...

Coimbra's response to the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic, seen from the viewpoint of a local newspaper.

This article investigates the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Coimbra using information found in the pages of a local newspaper. Rigorous and systematic analysis of the Gazeta de Coimbra reveals the urban bourgeoisie's perception of this health disaster, considered the most severe in the twentieth century. Guided by the newspaper's editor though an unofficial view of the facts, the reader can glimpse reactions to the first news of the epidemic, particularly the population's fears related to this information...

Photographic views of railroads: recording public works in nineteenth-century Brazil.

This article analyzes how railway engineering was connected to the production of photographs in mid-nineteenth-century Brazil. The hypothesis is that growing demands related to the execution of projects and new cartographic knowledge required more visual records, which was supplied and leveraged with the emergence of photographic techniques. Data was collected on photographic records of railroads taken in Brazil after the 1850s to analyze the characteristics of these images. This analysis was further extend...

The opportunity pill: discourses about the birth control pill in A Gazeta da Farmácia, 1960-1981.

The pharmacy world was a mandatory crossing point and active player in the establishment of hormonal contraception in Brazil. Through an analysis of articles published in A Gazeta da Farmácia from 1960 to 1981, the study explores little-known aspects of the birth control pill's biography and the construction of its Brazilian market. For pharmacy professionals, oral contraceptives were "opportunity pills" in two senses: they provided profits and they restored the prestige of these professionals within the s...

Health via consumption: the idealized representation of housewives, mothers, and wives in household economics manuals and magazine advertisements in O Cruzeiro and Manchete, 1940-1960.

The relationship between the representation of the idealized woman in the household economics manuals and the female figures of the advertisements published in O Cruzeiro and Manchete magazines between the 1940s and 1960s is analyzed. With different editorial proposals, manuals and magazines were predominantly directed at women who performed the duties of wife, housewife, mother and maid. Despite this clear definition of roles, there existed some tension around the female figure who was no longer tied to th...

Monitoring the correspondence of the mentally ill in Spanish psychiatric institutions: from care to censorship, 1852-1987.

This article examines the legislation allowing confiscation of the correspondence of the mentally ill in psychiatric hospitals. Arguing a duty of care, patients' letters were read by physicians and administrators. A study was performed of the regulations governing this practice in different Spanish institutions from the nineteenth century on; the measure was implemented by staff members under orders from their superiors. This arbitrary decision meant that a great deal of correspondence remains in the archiv...

Commerce, conflict, and contamination: yellow fever in early-independence Veracruz in the US imaginary, 1821-1848.

While commercial links between Mexico and the United States through the port city of Veracruz brought significant economic and social advantages in the early nineteenth century, public health concerns around yellow fever produced fascination and fear among US audiences (in southern and eastern port cities) from times of peace until the US invasion and occupation of Mexico (1846-1848). This article addresses the complex linkages between commerce, conflict, and contamination in reference to the port city of V...

Tobacco: the construction of policies for control of its consumption in Brazil.

Brazil is a country that stands out worldwide in the reduction of smoking due to its effective control policies. By means of a narrative review, the article analyzes the nature of the scientific discussions that underpin these public policies from historical, social, health and economic perspectives. The fact that the measures associated with these issues have been marked by conflicts of interest between the tobacco industry and health organizations is highlighted. Themes related to advertising, harm reduct...

Symbolic capital of the work of the female health visitors of the Public Health Service Foundation in the State of Alagoas, Brazil.

This study of a historical nature analyzes the work of health visitors of the Public Health Service Foundation in Alagoas between 1960 and 1990 and the symbolic capital attributed to them. Documental and oral sources were used, the latter produced in interviews conducted using thematic oral history, given by the visitors, the physician and nurse. The information was analyzed based on the concepts of habitus, field, symbolic capital and distinction of Pierre Bourdieu, and revealed that health visitors were r...

Chinese medicine/acupuncture: historical notes on the colonization of a body of knowledge.

Western colonialism influenced the encounter between traditional and modern knowledge from the nineteenth century onwards, resulting in the overlapping of Western medicine as a privileged form of knowledge. In 1958 the hybridization between Chinese and Western medicines became official under the name of traditional Chinese medicine and, through the development of biomedical research on acupuncture, it distanced itself from traditional knowledge. This essay presents historical changes experienced by Chinese ...

Writing the history of knowledge in Brazil.

This article surveys recent contributions to the history of knowledge in Brazil, mainly concerned with the history of the sciences, and makes some suggestions about the future development of the field, focussing on the different spaces or sites of knowledge (colleges and universities, museums, archives, botanical gardens, observatories, newspapers, foundations and so on) that have proliferated in the last 200 years in particular.

The phase after the eradication of smallpox in Mexico, 1952-1977.

This paper studies the phase after the declaration of the eradication of smallpox in Mexico and covers the period from June 1952 (the date on which the health authorities officially proclaimed this event) to 1977 (the year in which the National Institute of Hygiene prepared the last batch of glycerinated anti-smallpox vaccine). It is revealed that during these years, the Ministry of Health and Assistance continued to invest resources in work aimed at combating smallpox to maintain the levels of protection a...

Eugenics in Mediterranean Europe and Latin America.

Zero hour of eugenics in Argentina: disputes and ideologies surrounding the emergence of a scientific field, 1916-1932.

From the 1930s until the end of the Second World War, Count Keyserling's statement that "the hour of eugenics is at hand" was used to champion ideas and practices that Nancy Stepan argues were shared by different Latin American countries. We focus on the period prior to that, a sort of zero hour of eugenics in Argentina, which began institutionalizing in 1910 and emerged as a new scientific field. This period was marked by intra- and interdisciplinary tensions, a struggle to monopolize scientific authority,...

Late eugenics in Argentina and its family stereotype, second half of the twentieth century.

This article seeks to outline the main features of the stereotype of family promoted by the emblematic institution of the Argentine eugenics movement, the Argentine Eugenics Society (Sociedad Argentina de Eugenesia), an organization founded in 1945 that remained active in the country until the 1970s. It explores the conduct expected both of the man/husband and of the woman/wife, and shows the principal behaviors required to constitute the ideal family, the outlines of which were based on set of sexual moral...

Hans Betzhold and the Chilean "superman:" a tale of disillusion, 1938-1943.

The Chilean physician Hans Betzhold published the book Eugenesia (Eugenics) in 1939, which was a work that received multiple awards and ran to a second edition in 1942. Both editions and the participation of Betzhold at the Second Peruvian Conference on Eugenics in 1943 attest to the fact that he was an important actor in the field of Chilean eugenics. This paper analyzes his transition from the publication of Eugenesia, in which he proposes a National Eugenics Department combining existing projects and law...

A Vida Sexual (The Sexual Life), by Egas Moniz: eugenics, psychoanalysis, and the pathologization of the female sexed body.

An analysis is presented of A vida sexual (The sexual life), by Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz, in which the author divulged medical instructions about the sexed body. Complied in two volumes - "Physiology" and "Pathology" - in 1902, it was edited 19 times until it was censored under the Portuguese military dictatorship in 1933. In the work, Moniz devises a discourse of sexual differentiation anchored in an extensive bibliography produced between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in a con...

Eugenics and anarchism in early libertarian neo-Malthusianism in Barcelona, 1896-1915.

Anarchist neo-Malthusianism is increasingly receiving historiographical attention. This article deals with the following question: Did early anarchist neo-Malthusianism in Barcelona have anything to do with eugenics? To what extent, and how? To answer this, the article examines the transnational nature of the anarchist movement, in which cities played an essential role. This is shown in the strong connection between the Barcelona group and the French one, which had inherited the teachings of Paul Robin. The...

Neo-Malthusianism and eugenics in the struggle over meaning in the Spanish anarchist press, 1900-1936.

This article analyzes the debate on neo-Malthusianism and eugenics in Spanish anarchist publications in the first third of the last century. Using theoretical frameworks that have been under-utilized thus far, it provides new interpretations of what the term "eugenics" meant in pro-anarchist neo-Malthusian journals. Framed within a "struggle over meaning," Spanish neo-Malthusianism re-signified eugenic ideas in an attempt to recover political ground that had been lost in the drive to promote individual cont...

In the name of science: the conceptual and ideological background of Charles Richet's eugenics.

The French physiologist and Nobel Prize winner Charles Richet was the author of an impressive quantity of writings, including novels and poetry. He was an out-and-out eugenicist, convinced that "intentional, conscious, scientific, and methodical" selection could achieve "any result, provided we have enough patience." He believed that the quantitative and qualitative growth of the population was of vital importance for France. In La sélection humaine (1919) and other writings, he dreamt of conscious selecti...

Degeneration and improvement of the race: social higiene or eugenics? Colombia, 1920-1930.

This article discusses the similarities between certain knowledges and practices focused on "improving the race" in Colombia from 1920-1930, showing how they can be located within a framework defined by historiography as the "Latin American eugenic movement." The term "social hygiene" appears in some Colombian medical texts during this period to describe the improvement of a fraction of the population defined as "degenerate." This study contributes to discussion of the need to rethink "racial improvement" s...

Degeneration and eugenics in the history of Brazilian psychiatry: Renato Kehl and hereditary degenerates.

This article analyzes the notions of degeneration and eugenics in the field of psychiatry in the first decades of the twentieth century, stressing the existence of similarities and continuities, but also differences and conflicts between them. It analyzes a particular moment in the history of Brazilian psychiatry when arguments from degeneration theory and eugenic arguments and interventions became superimposed and mingled. It focuses, among other texts, on the work of Renato Kehl, "A esterilização dos gr...


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