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13:36 EDT 24th August 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 43 from ILAR journal

Everything You Need to Know About Satisfying IACUC Protocol Requirements.

There have been recent efforts to reduce the administrative burden imposed on investigators. Although a complete and thorough review of proposed animal studies is an essential function of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), efforts to streamline and clarify this process may help investigators spend less time writing animal use protocols and responding to committee comments. The IACUC relies on well-written protocols for an efficient review process. A well-designed protocol form is also ...

An Introduction to Pathology in Biomedical Research: A Mission-Critical Specialty for Reproducibility and Rigor in Translational Research.

This issue of ILAR Journal focusses on pathology and pathologists in biomedical research, more specifically in preclinical translational research involving (nonhuman) animals, emphasizing academic settings. Considerations in study design and planning to maximize benefit from pathologists and pathology resources are reviewed. Adjunctive technologies including molecular techniques, digital pathology, and imaging are highlighted. Additional considerations regarding safety and regulatory concerns, and veterinar...

Research with Agricultural Animals and Wildlife.

In fiscal year 2016, agricultural animals such as swine, sheep, goats, and cattle represented 10% of the 820 812 animals used in USDA-regulated research. In addition to traditional agricultural animals, research studies using captive wildlife are becoming increasingly important as human and livestock populations encroach upon, and thus expand interactions with, wildlife populations on the landscape. Optimum healthcare of both livestock and captive wildlife in a research setting requires proper husbandry, ma...

Keeping the Engine Running: The Relevance and Predictive Value of Preclinical Models for CAR-T Cell Development.

The cellular immunotherapy field has achieved important milestones in the last 30 years towards the treatment of a variety of cancers due to improvements in ex-vivo T cell manufacturing processes, the invention of synthetic T cell receptors, and advances in cellular engineering. Here, we discuss major preclinical models that have been useful for the validation of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies and also promising new models that will fuel future investigations towards success. However, mult...

Dietary Factors in Prevention of Pediatric Escherichia coli Infection: A Model Using Domestic Piglets.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the major etiological agent causing acute watery diarrhea that is most frequently seen in young children in lower-income countries. The duration of diarrheal symptom may be shortened by antibiotic treatment, but ETEC is relative refractory to common antibiotics. Burgeoning evidence suggests bioactive components that naturally occur in human milk (e.g., lysozyme and oligosaccharides) and plants (e.g., nondigestible carbohydrates and phytochemicals) contain antimicro...

Communicating About Animal Research with the Public.

Animals play a key role in biomedical research and other areas of scientific inquiry. But public opinion plays a key role in influencing how this area of science is regulated and funded. Nevertheless, scientists have historically been reticent to speak openly about their animal research or to open their animal facilities to the public in any way. Consequently, most of the available information has come from those opposed to animal research. This imbalance has led to suspicion and lagging public support for ...

Foreword and Introduction to This Issue on Contemporary Safety Topics in Animal Research.

Institutions with animal care and use programs are obligated to provide for the health and well-being of the animals, but are equally obligated to provide for safety of individuals associated with the program. The topics in this issue of the ILAR Journal, in association with those within the complimentary issue of the Journal of Applied Biosafety, provide a variety of contemporary occupational health and safety considerations in today's animal research programs. Each article addresses key or emerging occupa...

Clinical, Pathological, and Ethical Considerations for the Conduct of Clinical Trials in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Cancer: A Comparative Approach to Accelerate Translational Drug Development.

The role of comparative oncology in translational research is receiving increasing attention from drug developers and the greater biomedical research community. Pet dogs with spontaneous cancer are important and underutilized translational models, owing to dogs' large size and relative outbreeding, combined with their high incidence of certain tumor histotypes with significant biological, genetic, and histological similarities to their human tumor counterparts. Dogs with spontaneous tumors naturally develop...

Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction in Animal Studies With Biohazardous Agents.

Animal models are critical to the advancement of our knowledge of infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnostics, therapeutics, and prevention strategies. The use of animal models requires thoughtful consideration for their well-being, as infections can significantly impact the general health of an animal and impair their welfare. Application of the 3Rs-replacement, refinement, and reduction-to animal models using biohazardous agents can improve the scientific merit and animal welfare. Replacement of animal m...

Animal Welfare Standards and International Collaborations.

Globalization of the biomedical research enterprise is occurring at an accelerating pace. Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross national borders. Assurance that the caliber of animal research and animal welfare are consistent among countries and that such animal use is done in a humane and conscientious manner is of significant concern to the scientific community, the general public, and other stakeholders. Bridging these international collaborations is a clear scientific imperative fo...

Rational Design and In Vivo Characterization of Vaccine Adjuvants.

Many different adjuvants are currently being developed for subunit vaccines against a number of pathogens and diseases. Rational design is increasingly used to develop novel vaccine adjuvants, which requires extensive knowledge of, for example, the desired immune responses, target antigen-presenting cell subsets, their localization, and expression of relevant pattern-recognition receptors. The adjuvant mechanism of action and efficacy are usually evaluated in animal models, where mice are by far the most us...

Common Challenges in Safety: A Review and Analysis of AAALAC Findings.

The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide) is clear in its requirement for each institution to establish and maintain an occupational health and safety (OHS) program as an essential part of the overall program of animal care and use. For over 30 years, AAALAC International has utilized a variety of methods to evaluate this component of OHS programs as part of the accreditation process. AAALAC International began collecting data on site visit findings over 20 years ago us...

Pathology Study Design, Conduct, and Reporting to Achieve Rigor and Reproducibility in Translational Research Using Animal Models.

In translational research, animal models are an important tool to aid in decision-making when taking potential therapies into human clinical trials. Recently, there have been a number of papers that have suggested limited concordance of preclinical animal experiments with subsequent human clinical experience. Assessments of preclinical animal studies have led to concerns about the reproducibility of data and have highlighted the need for an emphasis on rigor and quality in the planning, conduct, analysis, a...

Managing Research Animal Specimens and Laboratory Safety.

The procedures necessary to perform testing in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory have inherent associated risks to personnel in regard to exposure to infectious agents. In research institutions animals can be experimentally infected, acquire naturally occurring infections and can also be exposed to other hazards such as toxic chemicals or radiologic entities. A critical component of the use of animals in a research environment is the collaboration between the responsible researcher and the veterinary diagn...

Good Laboratory Practice in the Academic Setting: Fundamental Principles for Nonclinical Safety Assessment and GLP-Compliant Pathology Support When Developing Innovative Biomedical Products.

Development of new biomedical products necessitates nonclinical safety assessment in animals as a means of assessing potential risk to human patients. Pivotal nonclinical safety studies that support human clinical trials are performed according to Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) guidelines, which are designed to ensure that the study was conducted under carefully controlled conditions using standardized and validated procedures that will yield a reliable, reproducible, and traceable data set. The GLP guideli...

Safety Considerations When Working with Humanized Animals.

Research using laboratory animals has been revolutionized by the creation of humanized animal models, which are immunodeficient animals engrafted with human cells, tissues, or organs. These animal models provide the research community a unique and promising opportunity to mimic a wide variety of disease conditions in humans, from infectious disease to cancer. A vast majority of these models are humanized mice like those injected with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and patient-derived xenografts. With ...

In Vivo Imaging With Confirmation by Histopathology for Increased Rigor and Reproducibility in Translational Research: A Review of Examples, Options, and Resources.

Preclinical noninvasive imaging can be an indispensable tool for studying animal models of disease. In vivo imaging to assess anatomical, functional, and molecular features requires verification by a comparison to the macroscopic and microscopic morphological features, since all noninvasive in vivo imaging methods have much lower resolution than standard histopathology. Comprehensive pathological evaluation of the animal model is underutilized; yet, many institutions have veterinary or human pathologists wi...

Applied Institutional Approaches for the Evaluation and Management of Zoonoses in Contemporary Laboratory Animal Research Facilities.

Zoonoses, diseases transmitted between animals and humans, have been a concern in laboratory animal medicine for decades. Exposure to zoonotic organisms not only poses health risks to personnel and research animals but may also affect research integrity. Early laboratory animal programs were ineffective at excluding and preventing transmission of zoonotic diseases: the health status of the animals were often unknown, endemic diseases occurred frequently, housing conditions were less controlled, and veterina...

Xenotransplantation: Progress Along Paths Uncertain from Models to Application.

For more than a century, transplantation of tissues and organs from animals into man, xenotransplantation, has been viewed as a potential way to treat disease. Ironically, interest in xenotransplantation was fueled especially by successful application of allotransplantation, that is, transplantation of human tissue and organs, as a treatment for a variety of diseases, especially organ failure because scarcity of human tissues limited allotransplantation to a fraction of those who could benefit. In principle...

Animal Models for Influenza A Virus Infection Incorporating the Involvement of Innate Host Defenses: Enhanced Translational Value of the Porcine Model.

Influenza is a viral respiratory disease having a major impact on public health. Influenza A virus (IAV) usually causes mild transitory disease in humans. However, in specific groups of individuals such as severely obese, the elderly, and individuals with underlying inflammatory conditions, IAV can cause severe illness or death. In this review, relevant small and large animal models for human IAV infection, including the pig, ferret, and mouse, are discussed. The focus is on the pig as a large animal model ...

Agricultural Animals as Biomedical Models: Occupational Health and Safety Considerations.

The use of agricultural animals in biomedical research is increasing. Their overall size and metabolic rate, organ size, longer gestation period, and other physiological similarities make them good candidates for animal models of human disease. There are a number of special considerations for use of traditional farm animals for biomedical research. Differences in physical plant infrastructure, handling equipment, training of personnel, and potential zoonoses are some of the important considerations when tra...

A Review of Current Standards and the Evolution of Histopathology Nomenclature for Laboratory Animals.

The need for international collaboration in rodent pathology has evolved since the 1970s and was initially driven by the new field of toxicologic pathology. First initiated by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer for rodents, it has evolved to include pathology of the major species (rats, mice, guinea pigs, nonhuman primates, pigs, dogs, fish, rabbits) used in medical research, safety assessment, and mouse pathology. The collaborative effort today is driven by the need...

Of Mice, Dogs, Pigs, and Men: Choosing the Appropriate Model for Immuno-Oncology Research.

The immune system plays dual roles in response to cancer. The host immune system protects against tumor formation via immunosurveillance; however, recognition of the tumor by immune cells also induces sculpting mechanisms leading to a Darwinian selection of tumor cell variants with reduced immunogenicity. Cancer immunoediting is the concept used to describe the complex interplay between tumor cells and the immune system. This concept, commonly referred to as the three E's, is encompassed by 3 distinct phase...

Beyond the H&E: Advanced Technologies for in situ Tissue Biomarker Imaging.

For decades, histopathology with routine hematoxylin and eosin staining has been and remains the gold standard for reaching a morphologic diagnosis in tissue samples from humans and veterinary species. However, within the past decade, there has been exponential growth in advanced techniques for in situ tissue biomarker imaging that bridge the divide between anatomic and molecular pathology. It is now possible to simultaneously observe localization and expression magnitude of multiple protein, nucleic acid, ...

Nontraditional Laboratory Animal Species (Cephalopods, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds).

Aquatic vertebrates and cephalopods, amphibians, reptiles, and birds offer unique safety and occupational health challenges for laboratory animal personnel. This paper discusses environmental, handling, and zoonotic concerns associated with these species.


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