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Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) with a possible role in the regulation of immune responses. A previous study has demonstrated down-regulation of this lncRNA in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In the current study, we genotyped two MALAT1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 428 Iranian MS patients and 505 healthy subjects. The G allele of the rs619586 was significantly under-represented in MS patients compared with controls (OR (95% CI)...
Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a member of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines produced by regulatory T (Treg) cells. This immunosuppressive cytokine can prevent exaggerated inflammatory responses like those responsible for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aims to determine the correlation between the gene expression of Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI-3) and IL-12A (p35) subunits of IL-35 in peripheral blood leukocytes with immunological and clinical parameters in RA patien...
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are the most common cancers of head and neck and the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an immune inhibitory molecule which through interaction with its ligands recruits protein phosphatase resulting in immune response inhibition. Expression of PD-1 ligands on tumor cells is considered as one of the crucial immune evasion mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the association of PD-1 gene polymorphisms at positions P...
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common form of autoimmune thyroid disorders characterized by lower production of thyroid hormones and positivity to autoantibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAb) and/or thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb). We performed a comprehensive phenotypic characterization of patients with HT, with specific focus on thyroid autoimmunity, to get better understanding of disease manifestation.
Impairment in number and functions of regulatory T cells (Treg) has been found to be associated with many autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was conducted to identify and compare Treg by flow cytometry using two different staining approaches.
The purified fraction of Albizia julibrissin saponins (AJSAF) was evaluated and characterized for the adjuvant activity on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine.
A large proportion of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China do not respond to entecavir (ETV) treatment. It remains unclear whether the Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotypes and haplotypes were associated with the advantage of seroconversion in phepatitis B e-Antigen (HBeAg) positive CHB patients treated with ETV.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects children, and it can result in coronary artery lesions. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an important precursor of several prostaglandins. The aim of this study was to examine the association between COX-2 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to KD.
Adipocytokines have been implied to be involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. MS patients whose first clinical episode is optic neuritis (ON) have been reported to display a milder disease course. In this study, we aimed to show whether this milder disease course is related to reduced adipokine production.
Human γδ T lymphocytes play a role in the immune system defense against cancer. Their broad anti-cancer activity against different types of cancers makes them outstanding candidates for cancer immunotherapy. An issue of recent interest is whether their antigen presentation features are similar to mature dendritic cells. The antigen-presenting cell (APC)-like phenotype and function of γδ T lymphocytes have been confirmed in many clinical trials. In this study, to support the strong role played by Vγ9Vδ...
Inconsistent results were reported on the association of TLRs polymorphisms with the risk of HCV infection and HCV-related diseases.
Numerous conditions, including cancer, diabetes, aging, and atherosclerosis, are thought to be associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as a persistent imbalance between oxidation and antioxidation, resulting in the damage of cellular macromolecules and is often considered to be involved in wide variety of human diseases. However, the current literature is very heterogeneous making it rather difficult to draw general conclusions. Often, different biomarkers have been used in different h...
There are accumulating reports for the potential role of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) rs1800796 polymorphism in the risk of periodontitis. However, distinct conclusions are observed. In this study, we have an interest in comprehensively analyzing the genetic relationship between IL-6 rs1800796 and the susceptibility to periodontitis.
We carried out a meta-analysis to assess whether Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) rs5743708 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) rs4986790 polymorphisms are associated with the risk of atopic dermatitis.
Aging-associated dysfunction of the immune system contributes to the increase in pathophysiological processes that occur with age. Numerous studies have shown that microRNAs regulate immune responses, although their role in age-related macrophage dysfunction remains elusive. Here, we found that miR-350-3p is expressed at lower levels in peritoneal macrophages from aged mice compared with young mice, and that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation downregulates miR-350-3p expression to a greater extent in youn...
Behçet's disease is an autoimmune disease with diverse clinical manifestations with vasculitis being the hallmark of the disease. The aim of this work is to study the genetic association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I molecules of Egyptians with Behçet's disease and the disease susceptibility and clinical patterns.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a universal health problem. HCV infection may proceed to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The latest is the third leading global cause of cancer-related mortality. Cytokines including IL-27 and TNF-α play a major role as a link between innate and adaptive immunity which in turn deduct the outcome of HCV infection.
Previously, we found that dual therapy by the CXCR4 inhibitor Plerixafor and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) effectively eradicated leukemia cells and concurrently activated immune cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To reveal the significance of programmed death-ligand1 (PD-L1) in AML and as a strategic approach, we investigated the anti-leukemic effect of a triple combinational therapy by utilizing Plerixafor and anti-PD-L1 in combination with chemotherapy in an AML mouse model. We examined leukemic myelo...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a potential therapy for various diseases. Here, the results of intrathecal injection of MSCs in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are reported.
RNA-dependant protein kinase R (PKR) is a primary mediator in the defence mechanism of interferon against viral replication and pathogenesis during Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In the present study, we have examined the role of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of PKR and the serum level of the same protein on the outcome of HCV-infected Egyptian patients.
Several studies confirmed the association of HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles with altered risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, data from individual studies based on small sample sizes yielded often conflicting findings in African Arabs. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at comprehensively evaluating this association with T1D, using molecular HLA data. Relevant studies were identified through systemic search of Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ResearchGate, and EMBASE databases. Stat...
IL-23/Th17 signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the cell-mediated immune response against bacterial infections and also in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent studies indicate that Th17 cell-associated cytokines are involved in the progression and maintenance of valvular lesions in rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Variants in the genes of cytokines that are potentially involved in Th17 response may influence interindividual differences in their expression levels, thereby cont...
Despite years of research, the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a significant challenge. Animal studies presented causal links between elevated regulatory T cell (Treg) response and better prognosis in AKI. Previous studies in mice and humans showed that TIM-3+ Treg cells were more potent than TIM-3- Treg cells. In this study, we investigated the role of TIM-3 in Treg in AKI patients.
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral condition with a major impact on the quality of life. The condition is thought to be due to the overexpression of T helper-1(Th1)-related cytokines. Since interleukin-4 (IL-4) and its receptor (IL-4Rα) are antagonistic to Th-1 pathways, polymorphisms in their genes may also be involved in the pathogenesis of aphthous stomatitis.
Alopecia areata (AA) is characterized by a genetically complex inheritance. HLA frequencies, as well as the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PTPN22, CTLA4, and IL2RA genes, have been described to be associated with AA susceptibility. So far, no independent replication of these studies has been reported, and no data exist on a possible association between AA disease and these SNPs or influence of HLA frequencies in Iranian population. A possible association between HLA-DRB1*11 alleles as well as a sin...