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06:10 EDT 20th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 185 from Immunology letters

Memory B cell pool of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis patients contains higher frequency of GM-CSF autoreactive B cells than healthy subjects.

The IgG-type neutralizing GM-CSF autoantibody (GMAb) is known to be the causative agent for autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (APAP). Previous studies report that serum levels of IgG-GMAb are approximately 50-fold higher in APAP patients than in healthy subjects (HS). Serum levels of IgM-GMAb are also higher in APAP patients than in HS, but this has been assumed to be an etiological bystander. However, the mechanism for the excessive production of IgG-GMAb in APAP remains unclear. To investigate thi...

The making and function of CAR cells.

Genetically engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) present a new treatment option for patients with cancer. Recent clinical trials of B cell leukemia have demonstrated a response rate of up to 90%. However, CAR cell therapy is frequently accompanied by severe side effects such as cytokine release syndrome and the development of target cell resistance. Consequently, further optimization of CARs to obtain greater long-term efficacy and increased safety is urgently needed. Here we high-...

Influence of Chemokines on the Endothelial Permeability and Cellular Transmigration during Dengue.

During a pathogenic infection, an inflammatory process is triggered in which several inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, complement system components, nitric oxide, and others induce integrity alteration on the endothelial barrier. Chemokines are responsible for regulating leukocyte trafficking under homeostatic conditions as well as activating immune system cells under inflammatory conditions. They are crucial molecules in the early stages of infection, leading to the rec...

Anti-inflammatory modulation of human myeloid-derived dendritic cell subsets by lenalidomide.

Although immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) were originally developed as anti-inflammatory drugs, they are effective for multiple myeloma. In order to gain further insights into the immunomodulatory mechanisms of IMiDs for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and myeloma, we investigated the influence of a representative IMiD, lenalidomide, on human primary dendritic cell (DC) subsets: myeloid-derived CD1c DCs, CD141 DCs, and plasmacytoid DCs. Lenalidomide did not affect the viability or expression of costim...

Increased Levels of Adipose Tissue-Resident Th17 Cells in Obesity Associated with miR-326.

miRNAs are important immune regulators in the control of the CD4 + T cells phenotype. miR-326 regulates the differentiation towards Th17 cells and the inhibition of miR-155 is associated with low levels of Treg cells. However, miRNAs expression and transcription factors associated with these lymphocyte subsets in obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation is still unknown. The aim of this work was to identify Th17 cells in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), proinflammatory cytokine production and their...

Lack of association between serum IL-9 levels and Behçet's disease.

Considering the role of interleukin (IL)-9 and IL-9-producing Th9 cells in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, this study aimed to evaluate serum IL-9 levels in patients with Behçet's disease (BD) compared to healthy subjects and to assess whether there is an association between serum IL-9 levels and disease characteristics in BD.

The UniCAR system: A modular CAR T cell approach to improve the safety of CAR T cells.

The idea to eliminate tumor cells via our own immune system is more than a hundred years old. However, a real break through came first with the development of check point inhibitors, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) and T cells genetically modified to express Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs). Eventhough the clinical application of T cells equipped with CARs can lead to a complete remission, unfortunately, their application can also cause severe or even life threatening side effects as their activity can no mo...

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β): is there a different role with regard to distinct phenotypes of endometriosis?

Th 9 cells in Behçet disease: Possible involvement of IL-9 in pulmonary manifestations.

Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystemic disease some of whose manifestations are characterized by pulmonary involvements. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the level of T-helper type 9 (Th9) cells and the cytokine interleukin (IL)-9 in peripheral blood and in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients with Behçet's disease (BD) affected by pulmonary manifestations. Nevertheless, until recently there have been no studies on its role in BD. The Th9 (CD4IL-9T) cell, transcription factor PU.1 and IL-9 mRN...

Inhibition of HIV-1 envelope-dependent membrane fusion by serum antilymphocyte autoantibodies is associated with low plasma viral load.

The HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) mediates the membrane fusion process allowing virus entry to target cells and the efficiency to induce membrane fusion is an important determinant of HIV-1 pathogenicity. In addition to virus receptors, other adhesion/signaling molecules on infected and target cells and virus particles can enhance fusion. The presence of antilymphocyte autoantibodies (ALA) in HIV patients' serum suggests that they may contribute to the inhibition of Env-mediated membrane fusion. Here, sera f...

Comparison of Clinical and Immunological Features and Mortality in Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Agammaglobulinemia Patients.

Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) and agammaglobulinemia are two of the main types of symptomatic primary antibody deficiencies. The pathogenic origins of these two diseases are different; agammaglobulinemia is a group of inherited disorders that usually are caused by mutations in the gene encoding Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) protein while CVID is a heterogeneous disorder mainly without monogenic cause. However, both diseases share a characteristic of frequent bacterial infections, a decline in serum...

Toll-like receptor signal is required in maintenance of immune suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells.

Dysfunction of immune regulatory cells has been recognized in a variety of immune diseases; the underlying mechanism remains to be further investigated. This study aims to investigate the critical role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal in the maintenance of function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this study, Tregs were isolated from patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and healthy control (HC) subjects. The role of TLR signal in the maintenance of Treg's function was tested with experiments of cell cult...

Vaccine platforms for the prevention of Lassa fever.

Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness caused by Lassa virus (LASV), which is endemic throughout much of West Africa. The virus primarily circulates in the Mastomys natalensis reservoir and is transmitted to humans through contact with infectious rodents or their secretions; human-to-human transmission is documented as well. With the exception of Dengue fever, LASV has the highest human impact of any haemorrhagic fever virus. On-going outbreaks in Nigeria have resulted in unprecedented mortality...

Analysis of interleukin-17 and interleukin-23 for estimating disease activity and predicting the response to treatment in active lupus nephritis patients.

Renal biopsy is a "gold standard" for establishing the diagnosis and assessing prognosis and monitoring therapy in lupus nephritis (LN) patients, but it is an invasive and inconvenient procedure. Evidences showed that interleukin-17(IL-17) and interleukin-23(IL-23) may be as alternative biomarkers for diagnosing LN, monitoring LN activity and predicting the response to treatment of LN. To analyze the roles of IL-17 and IL-23 in evaluation activity of LN and predicting active LN response to immunosuppressive...

Inhibiting phosphatase SHIP-1 enhances suboptimal IgE-mediated activation of human blood basophils but inhibits IgE-mediated activation of cultured human mast cells.

IgE-mediated activation of basophil granulocytes and mast cells follows a bell-shaped dose-response curve. The decreased activation at supraoptimal allergen stimulation is thought to be associated with SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP-1). SHIP-1 phosphorylation is inversely related to IgE-mediated releasability of basophils. This study sought to clarify the regulatory role of SHIP-1 in degranulation of basophil granulocytes and mast cells by selective inhibition of the phosphatase function of ...

In vivo deuterium labelling in mice supports a dynamic model for memory T-cell maintenance in the bone marrow.

The maintenance and dynamics of memory T-cells in the bone marrow are a matter of ongoing debate. It has been suggested that memory T-cells in the bone marrow are maintained as long-lived, quiescent cells. We have recently shown that memory T-cells isolated from goat bone marrow undergo self-renewal and recirculate via the blood and lymph. Using the well-established memory T-cell markers CD44 and CD62 L we here show very similar results in mice. This provides further support for the concept that memory T-...

Leishmania infantum LeIF and its recombinant polypeptides induce the maturation of dendritic cells in vitro: an insight for dendritic cells based vaccine.

We previously showed that recombinant Leishmania infantum eukaryotic initiation factor (LieIF) was able to induce the secretion of cytokines IL-12, IL-10 and TNF-α by human monocytes. In this study, we explored in vitro the potential of LieIF to induce phenotypic maturation and functional differentiation of murine bone - marrow derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs). Moreover, in order to identify potential immunnomodulatory regions of LieIF, eight recombinant overlapping protein fragments covering the whole ami...

Allergy to Mus m 1: Allergy to Mus m 1: a review of structural, and immunological features.

The prevalence of allergies to pets has been increasing over the past decades. Some of the most important animal-derived allergens are members of the lipocalin protein family, which are found in dander, saliva, and urine. These allergens disperse effectively and are widely present in indoor environments. Exposure to high levels of mouse urinary protein (Mus m 1, hereinafter called 'mouse allergen') has been previously linked to sensitization to mouse, and indicators of asthma severity or control in some stu...

Differential effects of anaphylatoxin C5a on antigen presenting cells, roles for C5aR1 and C5aR2.

The anaphylatoxin C5a is well-known for its role as chemoattractant and contributes to immune cell recruitment into inflamed tissue and local inflammation. C5a has recently been implicated in modulation of antigen presenting cell function, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, which are pivotal for T cell activation and final T cell effector function. The published data on the effect of C5a on APC function and subsequent adaptive immune responses are in part conflicting, as both pro and anti-inflammatory...

Mechanisms of polarized cell-cell communication of T lymphocytes.

Cell-cell communication comprises a variety of molecular mechanisms that immune cells use to respond appropriately to diverse pathogenic stimuli. T lymphocytes polarize in response to different stimuli, such as cytokines, adhesion to specific ligands and cognate antigens presented in the context of MHC. Polarization takes different shapes, from migratory front-back polarization to the formation of immune synapses (IS). The formation of IS between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell involves early events...

Effector memory regulatory T cells were most effective at suppressing RANKL but their frequency was downregulated in tibial fracture patients with delayed union.

Delayed union and nonunion occur in a minor subject of bone fractures, presenting ongoing challenges to treatment. RANKL, which promotes the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, is thought to negatively impact bone healing. In this study, we recruited patients with isolated closed tibial fracture, who were later categorized into normal healing and delayed healing groups based on their healing progression. The regulatory T cell (Treg) compartment was then investigated in each patient. Based on CD45...

ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL LESIONS AND INVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have been found in several types of cancer although the meaning of its presence is not completely known.

Circulating CXCR3-CCR6-CXCR5CD4 T cells are associated with acute allograft rejection in liver transplantation.

Circulating T follicular helper (cTFH) cells have been demonstrated to be involved in B-cell-mediated alloreactive responses in kidney and liver transplantation; however, whether these cells are involved in acute liver allograft rejection after liver transplantation, and which subsets are involved, remains to be clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the profiles of cTFH cells in acute liver allograft rejection, including the C-X-C motif receptor 3 (CXCR3) chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6)- subset, the...

Impact of B cell/lymphoid stromal cell crosstalk in B-cell physiology and malignancy.

Stromal cells have been considered for a long time essentially as a structural component organizing tissue architecture, including those of secondary lymphoid organs. More recently, highly specialized stromal cell subsets were shown to differentially organize immune cell recruitment, survival, and differentiation within lymph nodes. In particular, mature B cells interact with different lymphoid stromal cell networks through bidirectional interactions involving cell-cell contact and soluble factors. Follicul...

Inflammasomes and their roles in the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis and their related complications; an updated systematic review.

Inflammasomes are a set of innate receptors which are the responsible molecules for activation of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and induction of inflammation. Due to the key roles of the inflammasomes in the induction of inflammation, it has been hypothesized that the molecules may be the main parts of immune responses against viral infections and the tissue damage. Because some cases of viral hepatitis infections, including hepatitis B and C, are diagnosed as chronic and may be associated with various...


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