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Obesity without metabolic disorder [Ob(+)MD(-)] is a unique subcategory of obesity where individuals are protected from the obesity-related complications. Although conflicting clinical outcomes have been reported, there has been no study of the effects of Ob(+)MD(-) on cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we evaluated the association between the Ob(+)MD(-) phenotype and silent brain infarcts (SBI) in a neurologically healthy population.
The objective of this study is to examine, from a limited societal perspective, the cost-effectiveness of community-based obesity prevention interventions (CBIs)-defined as a programme of community-level strategies to promote healthy eating and physical activity for Australian children (aged 5-18 years).
Obesity has been associated with elevated leptinemia and vitamin D deficiency. To date, whether there is an association between vitamin D and leptin levels independent from adiposity remains uncertain. Our objective was to investigate the associations between changes in 25(OH) vitamin D levels, changes in adiposity variables, and changes in leptin levels produced by a 1-year lifestyle intervention program.
Excessive adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in obesity has been implicated in mediating inflammatory responses that impair glucose homeostasis and promote insulin resistance. Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) controls macrophage differentiation, and here we sought to determine the effect of a CSF1 receptor inhibitor, PLX3397, on adipose tissue macrophage levels and understand the impact on glucose homeostasis in mice.
We previously observed that selective agonists of the sympatho-inhibitory I imidazoline receptors (LNP ligands) have favorable effects on several cardiovascular and metabolic disorders defining the metabolic syndrome, including body weight. The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of LNPs on adiposity and the mechanisms involved, and to evaluate their impact on metabolic homeostasis.
Evidence suggests that regular eating patterns (i.e., consistent day-to-day frequency and timing of consumption) may be favorable with respect to weight status, and breakfast may be a particularly important meal for weight maintenance. We examined the relationship between regular breakfast consumption habits and weight status among women.
Obesity is a very heterogeneous disorder at both the clinical and molecular levels and with high heritability. Several monogenic forms and genes with strong effects have been identified for non-syndromic severe obesity. Novel therapeutic interventions are in development for some genetic forms, emphasizing the importance of determining genetic contributions.
The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) estimates cardiometabolic risk in youth without need for growth charts by sex and age. Questions remain about whether waist circumference measured per protocol of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WHtR) or World Health Organization (WHtR) can better predict blood pressures and lipid parameters in youth.
The most widely used adiposity index, body mass index (BMI), is not optimal to evaluate cardiovascular (CV) risk associated with overweight and obesity. We aimed to explore the association between traditional and non-traditional adiposity indices and CV mortality, and compare their discriminative ability for CV death.
Some weight loss medications, including liraglutide 3.0 mg, are thought to facilitate weight loss by improving appetite control. However, no studies have evaluated their long-term appetitive effects.
In the original version of this Article the following funding details were omitted from the Acknowledgements section.
Prolonged-release (PR) naltrexone 32 mg/bupropion 360 mg (NB) is approved for chronic weight management as an adjunct to reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity. Central nervous system-active medications have the potential to affect mood; therefore, post hoc analysis of clinical trial data was conducted to evaluate psychiatric adverse events (PAEs) and effects on mood of NB therapy versus placebo.
In utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) may alter risk of obesity and related metabolic disease later in life. We examined the relationship of prenatal exposure to TCDD with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children born to a unique cohort of TCDD-exposed women resulting from a 1976 explosion in Seveso, Italy.
To assess longitudinal changes in the first incidence of overweight and obesity and associated factors from preschool to primary school age in Japan.
There is evidence that the energetic demand of metabolically active tissue is associated with day-to-day food intake (EI). However, the extent to which behavioural components of total daily energy expenditure (EE) such as activity energy expenditure (AEE) are also associated with EI is unknown. Therefore, the present study examined the cross-sectional associations between body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), AEE and EI.
Little is currently known about how exercise may influence dietary patterns and/or food preferences. The present study aimed to examine the effect of a 15-week exercise training program on overall dietary patterns among young adults.
Adenovirus 36 (Ad-36) has been associated to adiposity in animal and in vitro studies. Ad-36 seropositivity has also been reported to contribute to obesity risk in children and adult populations. We investigated the relationship of Ad-36 serology with obesity and metabolic parameters in a Chilean population.
There are conflicting findings regarding the effect very low calorie diets (VLCDs) have on self-reported depressive symptoms and anxiety levels. Some studies have reported decreased subjective depressive symptoms and anxiety post-diet, whereas other studies have not. Further complicating matters, the protocol for VLCDs vary substantially across studies, which could account for the mixed findings. The primary goal of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to determine the effect VLCDs have on subjectiv...
Intermittent energy restriction (IER) is an alternative to continuous energy restriction (CER) for weight loss. There are few long-term trials comparing efficacy of these methods. The objective was to compare the effects of CER to two forms of IER; a week-on-week-off energy restriction and a 5:2 program, during which participants restricted their energy intake severely for 2 days and ate as usual for 5 days, on weight loss, body composition, blood lipids, and glucose.
Data visualisation is becoming an established way to drive discovery and develop theory and hypotheses among researchers. Data visualisations can also serve as tools for knowledge translation with policy makers, who are increasingly using data and evidence to inform and implement policy. For obesity policy, data visualisation tools can help policy makers and other professionals understand the socio-spatial distribution of risk factors and quantify social and environmental conditions that are recognised upst...
Aim of this study was to analyze long-term mortality in obese patients receiving malabsorptive bariatric surgery (BS)[biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) and biliointestinal bypass (BIBP)] in comparison to medical treatment of obesity.
To examine the association between weight change and mortality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.
Adolescent extreme obesity is associated with somatic and psychiatric comorbidity, low quality of life, and social dysfunction. Nevertheless, few adolescents seek obesity treatment, thus many may elope appropriate care. We examine whether previous treatment seeking relates to disease burden, and whether previously non-treatment seeking adolescents accept diagnostic and therapeutic offers. This information is important to inform intervention strategies.
The prevention of the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is complicated by multidimensional interplays between biological and psychosocial factors acting at the individual level. To address the challenge we took a systematic approach, to explore the bio-psychosocial predictors of blood glucose in mid-age.
Accumulation of visceral adiposity can disrupt the brain's sensitivity to interoceptive feedback, which is coded in the insula. This study aimed to test the link between visceral fat and the functional connectivity of two insulae regions relevant for eating behavior: the middle-dorsal insula (mIns), which codes homeostatic changes, and the rostral insula (rIns), which codes stable representations of food properties. We also assessed the impact of visceral adiposity-associated insulae networks on food cravin...