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PubMed Journal Database | International journal of pharmaceutical compounding RSS

09:22 EDT 23rd October 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 165 from International journal of pharmaceutical compounding

PreScription: Regulations, Laws, Standards, Guidelines, Procedures, Etc.

Compounded Cyclophosphamide and Piroxicam for the Treatment of a Canine Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor: A Case Report.

For many people, companion animals are family members and partners in life. The diagnosis of a life-threatening illness in a beloved pet can present challenges for the patient and cause stress and grief for its owner. A successful therapeutic outcome often requires the use of commercially manufactured medications that are not produced in the doses or dosage forms tolerated by veterinary patients or are unavailable to, unaffordable for, and/or inaccessible by owners. In those cases, the use of customized com...

Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, Part 3.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis with global incidence of about 1.5 million cases annually. The disease is endemic in Israel and caused by two types, leishmania major and leishmania tropica. The two types of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel are not life threatening, but the multiple skin lesions developed from the contaminated sandfly bites cause significant damage to the quality of life for a few months in patients with leishmania major and sometimes for more than a year in...

Oral Viscous Sucralfate Gel for Post-procedural Treatment of Barrett's Esophagus.

Barrett's esophagus refers to an abnormal change in the cells of the lower portion of the esophagus. It is characterized by the replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium lining of the esophagus by columnar epithelium cells which are usually found lower in the gastrointestinal tract. The medical significance of this pathology is approximately 0.5% risk to develop esophageal adenocarcinoma (per patient diagnosed with Barrett's esophagus per year). Diagnosis requires endoscopy and biopsy. In gen...

Threading the Needle.

Quality Control: Hand and Glove Sanitizing in Sterile Compounding, Part 1.

In pharmaceutical compounding, strict adherence to a protocol for hand hygiene and glove sanitizing is essential to ensure the purity, safety, and effectiveness of sterile preparations; reduce patient morbidity and mortality; and decrease the cost of health care. Alcohols and chlorhexidine gluconate are among the most effective bactericides, virucides, and fungicides, and acquired resistance to those agents has not been shown in clinical practice. This article, which is part 1 in a series of 2, pertains pri...

Basics: Excipients Used in Nonsterile Compounding, Part 2.

The July-August 2019 issue of the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding includes part 1 of a 3-part article on the topic of excipients used in nonsterile compounding. This article, which discusses dosage form design and excipients related to appearance, palatability, flavoring, sweetening, and coloring, represents part 2 of this 3-part series. Part 3 will discuss preservatives used in nonsterile preparations. The topics presented in part 2 are very important for patient compliance. The colors,...

Sterile Basics: Pharmaceutical Waters Used in Sterile and Nonsterile Compounding.

Water is the most abundant substance on earth, covering about 70% of the earth's surface. Life is dependent upon water and the water cycles involved. In pharmaceutical compounding, water is the most widely used excipient employed as a solubilizing agent and as a vehicle; it is also used medicinally. With the variety in dosage forms, there are different types of waters that are used, some with specific uses and some more general. For the different types or categories of water, there are different methods of ...

Stability of Furosemide 5 mg/mL in Polypropylene Syringes.

Furosemide parenteral solutions are routinely used in our hospital. However, the stability in transparent syringes is unknown. In this study, transparent polypropylene syringes were filled with 8 mL and 50 mL of furosemide 5-mg/mL solution. The furosemide was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and assays were performed up to 35 days of storage of the syringes at 4°C protected from light, plus 24 hours at 20°C exposed to daylight. In addition, the appearance and pH of the solutions were det...

Measurement of Free Iodine in Different Formulations of Povidone-Iodine Eye Drops 5.

There are multiple studies in the literature that support the use of povidone iodine in the preparation of the surgical field of cataract as the most effective means to reduce the bacteria present in the ocular surface and the risk of infection. The concentration of free iodine is related to the antiseptic activity of these compounds, being, therefore, a good indicator of its effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of free iodine and the evolution of it in different formulatio...

The Current Landscape of Veterinary Compounding in the Pharmacy Setting.

Medicating animals poses unique challenges that are often best dealt with via compounding. Pharmacists receive compounding training while in pharmacy school, but this training is not veterinary specific. Pharmacists are expected to have enough knowledge to properly verify prescriptions that are received at their practice site while keeping with the most up-to-date guidelines related to animal and human health. Whether pharmacists have the proper training to verify and/or compound veterinary specific medicat...

The Current Landscape of Veterinary Compounding in the Veterinary Setting.

Compounding for veterinarians is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but day-to-day regulation is deferred to the state authorities. Veterinarians must meet certain standards when prescribing or dispensing a compounded medication. Veterinarians are expected to maintain current knowledge of the benefit of compounded preparations and prescribe and dispense in keeping with the best evidence related to animal and human health. Whether veterinarians recognize or adhere to these standards is unkno...

Long-term Physiochemical Stability of Concentrated Solutions of Salbutamol (Albuterol) in Polypropylene Syringes for Use in the Intensive Care Unit and in Obstetrics.

In order to avoid fluid overload, the use of more concentrated drug solutions in intensive care units and obstetrics is common. The objective of this study was to quantify the physicochemical stability of a concentrated solution of salbutamol (albuterol) in polypropylene syringes during 30 days of storage at 5°C ± 3°C with protection from light. Four 50-mL syringes containing 0.060mg/mL of salbutamol (albuterol) in 0.9% NaCl were prepared and stored at 5°C ± 3°C with protection from light during 30 da...

Erratum: McNulty JP, Hahn K. Compounded oral ketamine for severe depression, anxiety, and pain in a hospice patient with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiopulmonary failure, and severe : A case report. IJPC. 2012; 16(5): 364-368.

The erratum pertains to the formula for Ketamine 40-mg/5-mL Flavored Oral Solution that was included within the original article. The yield of this formula should have been shown as 135 mL instead of 100 mL.

Erratum: Stevens JT. Summary of educational offerings provided by compounding support companies in 2019. IJPC. 2019; 23(3): 188-191.

The erratum pertains to the following article: Stevens JT. Summary of educational offerings provided by compounding support companies in 2019. IJPC. 2019; 23(3): 188-191. The information provided in Table 1 of that article was incomplete, and the following revised Table 1 provides the latest update to that information.

PreScription: Temperatures by Degrees.

Contamination Control in Compounding Areas.

In pharmaceutical compounding, effective contamination control is based on a complete understanding of the impact, sources, mechanisms, and prevention of adulterants in the compounding suite. Only then do the multiple facets of designing, constructing, maintaining, cleaning, using, and monitoring controlled environments make sense. This article presents an overview of the types of contaminants likely to compromise the potency and for their eradication. The information provided also applies to the contaminat...

Mean Kinetic Temperature for Controlled Room Temperature Drug Storage: Official Definitions and Example Calculations.

Mean kinetic temperature, a thermodynamically calculated average temperature that is used to determine whether or not the controlled room temperature drug storage limit has been maintained to ensure drug stability, first became official in the Ninth Supplement of the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary on November 15, 1993. The calculations involved may appear lengthy, and their mathematic solutions are presented in this article. Also included is a short history on the development of the Arrhenius...

Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, Part 2.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis with global incidence of about 1.5 million cases annually. The disease is endemic in Israel and caused by two types, leishmania major and leishmania tropica. The two types of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel are not life threatening, but the multiple skin lesions developed from the contaminated sand fly bites cause significant damage to the quality of life for a few months in patients with leishmania major and sometimes for more than a year i...

Now Is the Time for All Good Compounders to Come to the Aid of Their Profession: What You Do Right Now to Advance Compounding's Advocacy Priorities Can Help Assure Your Profession's Future.

Summary of Quality-Control Testing for Sterile and Nonsterile Compounded Preparations, Part 2: Microbiological Testing.

This 2-part series discusses quality-control and quality-assurance issues along with physical and chemical analytical methods and microbiological testing related to both sterile and nonsterile compounded preparations. This second part covers microbiological testing, including sterility, bacterial endotoxins, preservative effectiveness, and microbial limit testing, along with continuous quality improvement, sample selection and requirements, out-of-specification results, and cost factors associated with test...

Basics: Compounding Used in Nonsterile Compounding, Part 1.

Due to dosing quantities, physicochemical characteristics, organoleptic issues, and other considerations, drug substances are seldom administered as the pure drug powder. Instead, they are formulated into appropriate dosage forms to provide an efficacious, safe, stable, and suitable product for patient administration that should also enhance compliance. The ingredients present, in addition to the active drug substance, are pharmaceutical ingredients or excipients and are varied and complex in their nature a...

Long-term Physicochemical Stability of Concentrated Solutions of Sodium Valproate in Polypropylene Syringes for Administration in the Intensive Care Unit.

In some situations, drug solutions in higher concentrations are used in intensive care units. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical stability of concentrated solutions of valproate sodium in polypropylene syringes during 30 days at 5°C ± 3°C. Five syringes of 40 mL containing 20 mg/mL of sodium valproate in 0.9% sodium chloride were prepared and stored at 5°C ± 3°C during 30 days. Immediately after preparation and periodically during the storage, valproate concentrations were...

Extemporaneous Indomethacin Oral Suspension Prepared from Injectable Ampules for Therapy in Premature Infants and Pediatric Patients.

Indomethacin is used for off-label prescription for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. In Argentina, indomethacin is only available as a suppository, dermic cream, injectable ampules, and delayed-release capsules. Aiming to improve pediatric treatment and minimize the risk associated with improper dosage, this work focused on the development of an extemporaneous 0.2% indomethacin oral suspension, starting from the commercially injectable formulation. Two 150-mL batches of suspen...

Subcutaneous Testosterone Anastrozole Therapy in Men: Rationale, Dosing, and Levels on Therapy.

This analysis was designed to determine the efficacy of anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, combined with testosterone in a subcutaneous implant in preventing elevated estradiol levels and the subsequent side effects of excess estrogen associated with testosterone therapy. It also allowed for the establishment of normative ranges of serum testosterone levels on subcutaneous implant therapy. The study participants were 344 men who were accrued to an institutional review board-approved cohort study between A...


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