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We hypothesized that carriage of presumably high Hsp70 producing gene variants on a specific human major histocompatibilty complex haplotype, the 8.1 ancestral haplotype (8.1AH), may predispose HIV-infected individuals to AIDS-NHL.
With the scale up of anti-retroviral treatment, many health facilities in low- and middle-income countries have implemented innovative practices targeted at overcoming operational challenges and delivering efficient quality HIV services. However, many of these practices remain largely unexplored as a means to better reach the global 90-90-90 targets.
Sharing needles/syringes is an important means of HIV transmission amongst persons who inject drugs (PWIDs). London, Canada is experiencing an outbreak of HIV amongst PWIDs, despite a large needle/syringe distribution program and low rates of needle/syringe sharing.
London, Canada experienced an HIV outbreak among persons who inject drugs (PWID) despite widespread distribution of harm reduction equipment. Hydromorphone controlled-release (HMC) is the local opioid of choice. Injection drug preparation equipment (IDPE; i.e., cookers, filters) are often shared and reused due to the perception that there is residual HMC in the IDPE after use. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of HIV transmission in this context.
Although differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for stable patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) offer a range of health systems innovations, their comparative desirability to patients remains unknown. We conducted a discrete choice experiment to quantify service attributes most desired by patients to inform model prioritization METHODS:: Between July and December 2016 a sample of HIV-positive adults on ART at 12 clinics in Zambia were asked to choose between two hypothetical facilities which diffe...
Dolutegravir, an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI) is a major antiretroviral agent for HIV infection. Its use is promising, especially in low and middle-income countries, because of a high resistance barrier and a good safety profile. Very recently, a WHO safety signal has been raised regarding neural tube defects after first trimester exposure. Furthermore to date, the experience is limited regarding the use of the others InSTI drugs (raltegravir and elvitegravir) during pregnancy. Our objective ...
Vitamin D status in pregnancy may influence the risk of prematurity, birth size, and child postnatal growth but few studies have examined the relationship among pregnant women living with HIV.
Alcohol use influences HIV disease severity via multiple mechanisms. Whether HIV disease severity is sensitive to changes in alcohol use among people with HIV (PWH) is understudied.
Young men of color who have sex with men (YMSM) face a continual increase in rates of HIV infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an important prevention method for these young men.
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clinical guidelines for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are widely utilized to assess patients' PrEP eligibility. The guidelines include two versions of criteria - guidance summary criteria and recommended indications criteria - that diverge in a potentially critical way for heterosexually active women: Both require women's knowledge of their own risk behavior, but the recommended indications also require women's knowledge of their partners' HIV risk o...
The benefit of immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 >500 cells/ìL was established in the Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) study. The benefits and risks of immediate ART in participants with low pre-treatment viremia, including virologic suppressors, was further assessed.
Many men with HIV express fertility intentions and nearly half have HIV-uninfected sexual partners. We measured partner pregnancy among a cohort of men accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda.
There is an imperative need for innovative interventions to identify people living with HIV and initiate them on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing index partner/child testing of people living with HIV.
Women living with HIV (WLH) in rural communities face challenges to obtaining treatment and accurate disease-related information. Nutritional deficits exacerbate disease progression.
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective biomedical HIV prevention strategy, yet some gay and bisexual men (GBM) who are eligible to access PrEP are not using it. We report the incidence of PrEP uptake, factors predicting its initiation, and identify characteristics associated with non-uptake of PrEP among Australian GBM who meet the eligibility criteria.
Few studies have examined outcomes of high-resolution anoscopy (HRA)-based screening for people with HIV infection (PWH), a population at increased risk for anal cancer. SETTING00:: Large integrated healthcare system.
Death is an important but often unmeasured endpoint in public health HIV surveillance. We sought to describe HIV among deaths using a novel mortuary-based approach in Nairobi, Kenya.
"HIV prevention cascades" have been proposed to support programs by identifying gaps in demand for, access to, and capability to adhere to HIV prevention tools, but there are few empirical examples to guide development. We apply a prevention cascade framework to examine prevention coverage and factors associated with condoms and/or PrEP adherence among female sex workers.
During 2008-2015, the estimated annual HIV incidence rate in the United States decreased for each transmission risk category, except for men who have sex with men (MSM). Racial/ethnic disparities exist, with higher incidence rates for Black and Hispanic/Latino MSM.
We evaluated the association between maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia during pregnancy and adverse birth and infant health outcomes in HIV-infected mothers and their HIV-exposed uninfected infants.
Proteinuria has been associated with bone loss and fractures in general population but data in HIV-infected population is lacking.