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Many studies have investigated the existence of discrete groups comprising the clinical concept of depression. Nevertheless, identifying true latent depression groups might require the inclusion of indicators of severe manifestations of depression, such as suicidal thoughts, in the analysis. Another issue is that relatively few studies have addressed the latent structure of depression in children and adolescents from Latin American cultures.
Antidepressants are frequently prescribed and are the first-line pharmacological treatments for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Although antidepressants are generally effective and well-tolerated by children, between 31% to 48% will not respond and up to 25% will experience an adverse drug reaction. Evidence from adult populations suggests pharmacogenetic information can assist with identifying individuals at greatest risk for poor response or adverse drug reactions but the evidence base ...
American Indian people have high suicide rates. However, little epidemiological data is available on depression prevalence, a suicide risk factor, in this population. Some research suggests that depression scales may perform differently for American Indian people. However, the Patient Health Questionnnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a depression scale widely-used in clinical practice, had not been assessed for cross-cultural measurement invariance with American Indian people.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the course of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the demographic and clinical correlates associated with significant changes in symptom severity in postpartum women.
The PHQ-9 is a standard screening tool for depressive disorders in cancer patients. As for the frequently reported symptom overlap with somatic disease, it has been debated whether somatic items are suitable for identifying depressive disorders in cancer patients. Thus, this study examines the diagnostic accuracy of somatic versus cognitive-emotional PHQ-9 items.
Meta-analyses support the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in Western cultures. However, there are no adequately powered multicentre studies in China. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of treatment with CBT combined with medication and medication alone in OCD patients in China.
The Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS) has been studied across Canada and some other countries during the past almost 15 years. The scale is a self-report tool to diagnose and monitor clinical depression in adolescents. A brief review of previous studies on KADS showed the lack of evaluation of KADS fairness/equivalence in measuring depression among identified groups.
Previous studies analyzed brain functional connectivity (FC) based on resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) data to reveal the neuropathology of bipolar disorder (BD) and suggested that their FC alterations are at widespread network-level. However, few studies have analyzed the dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) in BD. Thus, we aimed to reveal the dFNC properties of BD in this study.
Suicide among postpartum women is a new and emerging issue in developed countries. However, little is known about the combined effect of risk factors on self-harm ideation, although various risk factors have been found. The aim of this study is to examine the combined effect of maternal adverse childhood experiences and maternal age on self-harm ideation among postpartum women.
Suicidal behavior is a multifactorial, polygenic state that affects millions worldwide. It is a result of interplay between hereditary and environmental factors, tied together by epigenetics. Despite vast knowledge on suicidality complete mechanism and factors leading to suicide are unknown. However there is an indication between changes in DNA methylation patterns and suicidal behavior.
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-tolerated neuromodulation treatment with demonstrated trial efficacy in anxiety disorders. The aim of the current study was to demonstrate its clinical and cost effectiveness during and after CES in people with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) who had not responded to low intensity psychological treatment in a routine health service.
Engagement in painful and provocative events is central to hypotheses for how capability for suicide develops. However, the existing measure of painful and provocative events is not psychometrically sound. We developed a measure with improved psychometric properties: the Painful and Provocative Events Scale (PPES)-Revised.
Several lines of evidence are pointing towards an involvement of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathophysiology of depression. There are studies analyzing blood levels of VEGF in patients with depression compared to controls, but a data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of VEGF in patients with depression are lacking.
Alexithymia reflects a difficulty with identifying and expressing emotions. This experience has been proposed as having an association with suicide ideation and behaviour. This review aimed to synthesise the evidence to establish the bivariate and multivariate relationships between alexithymia, and its subcomponents, with suicide ideation and behaviour.
Early childhood trauma is known to independently increase adverse outcome risk in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, although the neurological correlates are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early childhood trauma alters neural responses to acute mental stress in CAD patients.
To investigate the influence of maternal depression on child health-care services utilization.
The role of physical symptoms on suicidal ideation in adolescents is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to discover the potential physical symptoms predictors for suicidal ideation in college freshmen.
Previous studies suggested that gestational diabetes may increase the risk of postpartum depression, but the results are inconclusive. We aimed to systematically assess the association between gestational diabetes and risk of postpartum depressive symptoms by a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide; with evidence suggesting that decreased gut barrier function and inflammation are correlated with depressive symptoms. We conducted a clinical trial to determine the effect of consumption of probiotic supplements (Winclove's Ecologic® Barrier) on depressive symptoms in a sample of participants with mild to severe depression.
Neural mechanisms contributing to an underlying cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) are poorly understood. An effective method to probe cognitive processing deficits in PD is the examination of brain activity during emotional processes, particularly in explicit language emotion recognition contexts.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with poorer behavioral performance in domains of working memory and associated cognitive systems for cognitive control and attention. Functional neuroimaging studies show altered functioning in MDD in frontal executive control circuits implicated in these cognitive processes. It is not yet known whether poor cognitive performance involving these circuits is part of the familial risk for MDD, and we addressed this issue using a multi-modal imaging, behavioral and...
Attentional disruptions are common in PTSD, but findings across neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have been variable. Few PTSD studies have investigated abnormalities in attention networks using a multi-modal imaging approach and attentional tasks that include emotionally-salient images. This study combined a behavioral task that included these images (emotional Stroop) with functional and structural neuroimaging (fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging; DTI) methods to comprehensively investigate atten...
The recent guidelines for depressive disorders in China are based on both the first edition published in 2003, and new scientific evidence reviewed until the end of 2014. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of depressive disorders for Chinese patients.
The present study examined the real-world effectiveness of a transdiagnostic prevention program, Super Skills for Life (SSL), among children with emotional problems in regular school settings. SSL is based on the principles of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), behavioral activation, and social skills training.
Peer victimization is associated with increased risk for depression, as well as increased neural response to social exclusion in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the amygdala. Altered functional connectivity (FxC) of fronto-limbic circuitry is associated with risk for various affective disorders. The present study examined the relationship between fronto-limbic FxC during social exclusion, prior peer victimization experience and depressive symptoms.