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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of agricultural and food chemistry RSS

02:54 EDT 25th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,300+ from Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Quantitative proteomics analysis of barley-based liquid feed and the effect of protease inhibitors and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin (NTR/Trx) system.

Liquid feeding strategies have been devised with the aim of enhancing grain nutrient availability for livestock. It is characterized by a steeping/soaking period that softens the grains and initiates mobilization of seed storage reserves. The present study uses 2D gel-based proteomics to investigate the role of proteolysis and reduction by thioredoxins over a 48 h of steeping period by monitoring protein abundance dynamics in barley-based liquid feed samples supplemented with either protease inhibitors or N...

Anaerobic Degradation of N-ε-Carboxymethyllysine, A Major Glycation End Product, By Human Intestinal Bacteria.

Modifications of lysine contribute to the amount of dietary advanced glycation end-products reaching the colon. However, little is known about the ability of intestinal bacteria to metabolize dietary N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (CML). Successive transfers of fecal microbiota in growth media containing CML were used to identify and isolate species able to metabolize CML under anaerobic conditions. From our study, only donors exposed to processed foods degraded CML and anaerobic bacteria enrichments from two of ...

Isoalliin-derived Thiolanes Formed in Homogenized Onion.

Several families of 3,4-dimethylthiolane-based compounds spontaneously formed upon cutting of onion (Allium cepa) were studied. We report the isolation of the first known example of a naturally-occurring dithiolactone, 5-hydroxy-3,4-dimethylthiolane-2-thione (cepadithiolactone A, C6H10OS2). Furthermore, on the basis of conceivable spectroscopic evidence (MS, NMR, IR), we could disprove the structure previously proposed for onionin A (C9H16O2S2), which is shown to be in fact (E)-3,4-dimethyl-5-(1-propenylsul...

Gastrointestinal bioaccessibility and colonic fermentation of fucoxanthin from the extract of the microalga Nitzschia laevis.

The extract of microalga Nitzschia laevis (NLE) is considered a source of dietary fucoxanthin, a carotenoid possessing a variety of health benefits. In the present study, the bioaccessibility and deacetylation of fucoxanthin was studied by simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic batch fermentation. In the gastric phase, higher fucoxanthin loss was observed at pH 3 compared to pH 4 and 5. Lipases are crucial for the deacetylation of fucoxanthin into fucoxanthinol. Fucoxanthinol production d...

A Combination of Capsaicin and Capsiate Induces Browning in 3T3-L1 White Adipocytes via Activation of the PPARγ/ β3-AR Signaling Pathways.

This study investigated the effects and molecular mechanism of a combination of capsaicin and capsiate on promoting lipid metabolism and inducing browning in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes. The combination significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in adipocytes (P = 0.0190) and robustly improved lipid metabolic profiles, including the decreased TG (0.6703 ± 0.0385 vs 0.2849 ± 0.0188 mmol/g of protein; P < 0.0010), TC (0.1282 ± 0.0241 vs 0.0651 ± 0.0178 mmol/g of protein; P = 0.0030) and LDL-C (0.0021 ± 0...

Bioavailability evaluation of dissolved organic matter derived from compost-amended soils.

In this study, Hetero two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (Hetero-2DCOS) combined with PARAFAC was employed to reveal the inner changes in the Dissolved organic matter (DOM) components derived from soil amended with seven different composts. The dynamics of the four DOM components showed that the fluorescence peaks in each component varied in different directions during mineralization. Structural equation models (SEM) demonstrated that the compost amendments changed the correlations of the total organi...

Phosphorylation and enzymatic hydrolysis with alcalase and papain effectively reduce allergic reactions to gliadins in normal mice.

Gliadins are major allergens responsible for wheat allergies. Food processing is an effective strategy to reduce the allergenicity of gluten. In the present study, we determined secondary and tertiary structure of gliadins treated with chemical, physical and enzymatic treatments through FTIR, surface hydrophobicity, intrinsic fluorescence spectrum and UV absorption spectrum. The results showed that the three treatments of phosphorylation, alcalase and papain hydrolysis significantly changed the conformation...

Comparative physiological and proteomic analysis of two sugar beet genotypes with contrasting salt tolerance.

Soil salinity is one of the major constraints affecting agricultural production and crop yield. A detailed understanding of the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms of the different genotypic salt tolerance response in crops under salinity is therefore a prerequisite for enhancing this tolerance. In this study, we explored the changes in physiological and proteome profiles of salt-sensitive (S210) and tolerant (T510) sugar beet cultivars in response to salt stress. T510 showed better growth sta...

Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid content in glyphosate-resistant soybean leaves, stems and roots and associated phytotoxicity following a single glyphosate-based herbicide application.

Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) applications were reported to induce physiological damages to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean, which were mainly attributed to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). In order to study glyphosate and AMPA dynamics in plants and associated phytotoxic effects, a greenhouse experiment was set where GR soybeans were exposed to GBH (0.7 to 4.5 kg glyphosate ha-1) and sampled over time (2, 7, 14 and 28 days after treatment (DAT)). Hydrogen peroxide content increased 2 DAT, while a d...

Role of glutamine synthetase isogenes and herbicide metabolism in the mechanism of resistance to glufosinate in Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum biotypes from Oregon.

Glufosinate-resistant Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum biotypes from Oregon exhibited resistance levels up to 2.8-fold the field rate. One resistant biotype (MG) had an amino acid substitution in the glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2), whereas the other (OR) exhibited the wild-type genotype. We hypothesized that the amino acid substitution in GS2 is involved in the resistance mechanism in MG, and that non-target site resistance mechanisms are present in OR. OR metabolized glufosinate faster than the other two b...

Endoplasmic reticulum stress and UPR pathways are involved in the health-promoting effects of allicin on the jejunum.

Intestinal endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) triggered by adverse factors disturbs the normal function of the intestine. Allicin has been reported to promote intestinal health and development. In the present study, we established in vivo (35-day-old weaned piglets, 4-week-old mice) and in vitro (IPEC-J2 cell line) ERS models to explore the possible mechanisms by which allicin may benefit intestinal health. This study revealed that 1) allicin supplementation improved intestinal morphological indices and ame...

Biodegradation of the neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid by actinomycetes Streptomyces canus CGMCC 13662 and characterization of the novel nitrile hydratase involved.

Neonicotinoid insecticide pollution in soil and water poses serious environmental risks. Microbial biodegradation is an important neonicotinoid insecticide degradation pathway in the environment. In this study, 70.0% of the acetamiprid in a 200 mg/L solution was degraded by actinomycetes Streptomyces canus CGMCC 13662 (isolated from soil) in 48 h, and the acetamiprid degradation half-life was 27.7 h. Acetamiprid was degraded to IM-1-2 ((E)-1-(1-(((6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methyl)(methyl) amino)ethylidene)urea) ...

Development of a Passive Sampling Technique for Measuring Pesticides in Waters and Soils.

It is essential to monitor pesticides in the environment to help ensure water and soil quality. The diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique can measure quantitative in-situ labile (available) concentrations of chemicals in water, soil and sediments. This study describes the systematic development of the DGT technique for 9 current pesticides, selected to be representative of different classes with a wide range of properties, with two types of resins (HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced) and XAD 1...

Identification and dissipation of omethoate and its main metabolite DMP in wheat determined by UPLC-QTOF/MS.

A study was carried out to evaluate the dissipation kinetics of field-applied omethoate during wheat storage. Both the identification and metabolic dynamics of omethoate metabolites were analyzed using UPLC-QTOF/MS. The presence of the metabolite dimethyl phosphate (DMP) was confirmed in wheat samples with applied omethoate. This might be because the group attached to the P atom of omethoate is replaced by a hydroxyl group through hydrolysis, thus leading to the formation of the specific metabolite DMP duri...

The fucoidan A2 from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum lowers lipid by improving reverse cholesterol transport in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.

Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is believed to facilitate hyperlipidemia and fucoidans are reported to have lipid-lowering effect. This study was designed to investigate whether the fucoidan from the brown seaweed A. nodosum lowers lipid by modulating RCT in C57 BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. Our results indicated that fucoidan intervention significantly reduced plasma triglyceride, TC and fat pad index, and markedly increased HDL-C in a dose-dependent manner. In the liver, the fucoidan significantly i...

A Highly Sensitive SPE-Derivatization-UHPLC-MS Approach for Quantitative Profiling of Carotenoid-derived Dialdehydes from Vegetables.

Oxidative cleavage of carotenoids leads to dialdehydes (diapocarotenoids, DIALs), besides the widely known apocarotenoids. DIALs are biologically active compounds that presumably impact human health and play different roles in plant development and carotenoid-metabolism. However, detection of DIALs in plants is challenging due to their instability, low-abundance and poor ionization efficiency in mass spectrometry. Here, we developed a solid phase extraction (SPE) and derivatization protocol coupled with ult...

LC-MS Metabolomics and Chemotaxonomy of Caffeine-Containing Holly ( Ilex) Species and Related Taxa in the Aquifoliaceae.

Ilex species have been consumed traditionally as medicinal teas worldwide. Though the presence of caffeine has been reported in several species, little is known about secondary-metabolite diversity within and among these taxa. Leaf samples of Ilex guayusa, Ilex paraguariensis, and Ilex vomitoria were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and comparative metabolite profiling with Ilex cassine and other Ilex species to identify chemotaxonomic markers, delimit species, and provide an assessment o...

Pectin/Chitosan/Tripolyphosphate Nanoparticles: Efficient Carriers for Reducing Soil Sorption, Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Paraquat and Enhancement of its Herbicide Activity.

As a potent herbicide capable of contaminating water and soil environments, paraquat which is still widely used worldwide is toxic to mammals, algae, aquatic animals, etc. Paraquat was loaded on novel nanoparticles composed of pectin, chitosan, and sodium tripolyphosphate (PEC/CS/TPP). The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of nanoparticles were characterized. Further assessments were carried out by SEM, AFM, FT-IR and DSC. The encapsulation was highly efficient and there was a delayed release pa...

Hapten Synthesis, Antibody Development, and a Highly Sensitive Indirect Competitive Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Dicamba.

Although the dicamba has long been one of the most widely used selective herbicides, now, some US states have banned the sale and use of dicamba because of farmers complaints of a drift and damage to non-resistant crops. To prevent illegal use of dicamba and allow monitoring of non-resistant crops, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of dicamba is critical. In this paper, three novel dicamba haptens with an aldehyde group were synthesized, conjugated to the carrier protein via reductive amination pro...

Targeted metabolomics analysis and identification of biomarkers for predicting browning of fresh-cut lettuce.

The metabolism of phenolic compounds is a key factor in the development of wound-induced enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lettuce. In the present study, the lettuce midribs discriminant metabolites, selected in a previous untargeted metabolomics study, were thoroughly identified. Our results showed that their basal contents correlated with browning developed after 5 days of storage. 5-trans-chlorogenic acid and 5-cis-chlorogenic acids were positively correlated with browning, while sinapaldehyde and its 4-...

Discovery of a Thiamine-Derived Taste Enhancer in Process Flavors.

Targeted quantitation of 48 basic taste-active compounds in commercial meat-like process flavors, calculation of dose-over-threshold factors, and basic taste re-engineering, followed by activity-guided fractionation revealed, next to L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides, a series of N-acetylated amino acids and S-((4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl) methyl)-L-cysteine as taste modulating compounds. The N-acetylated amino acids imparted kokumi enhancement with rather high taste thresholds ranging up to 1800 µmol...

First anti-ToCV activity evaluation of glucopyranoside derivatives containing a dithioacetal moiety through a novel ToCVCP-oriented screening method.

Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is a newly reported plant virus that has rapidly spread to all parts of the world, resulting in a serious decline in tomato quality and yield due to the lack of effective control agents. In this study, the ToCV coat protein (ToCVCP) was expressed and purified in Escherichia coli, and a series of novel glucopyranoside derivatives containing a dithioacetal moiety was designed and synthesized. The binding affinity of these compounds to ToCVCP was determined using microscale thermo...

Effects of oxidation in vitro on structures and functions of myofibrillar protein from beef muscles.

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oxidation in vitro on the biochemical properties of myofibrillar protein isolates (MPI) from beef muscles. MPI was incubated at 4 °C for 24 h with hydroxyl radical-generating systems consisting of 0.01 mM FeCl3 and 0.1 mM ascorbic acid plus 0, 0.2, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mM of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that oxidation caused drastically structural changes in bovine MPI. The carbonyl content, the surface hydrophobicity and the particle dia...

Thermal and Photochemical Stability of Anthocyanins from Black Carrot, Grape Juice and Purple Sweet Potato in Model Beverages in Presence of Ascorbic Acid.

Anthocyanins are natural dyes widely used in the food industry, but their chemical stability in beverages can be affected by the presence of additives. In the present paper, the interaction between anthocyanins and ascorbic acid (AA) is more particularly investigated. Ascorbic acid is an ubiquitous component in food products. In this study, the thermal stability at 43 °C and the photolysis stability under air and under an inert atmosphere (N2) of anthocyanins extracted from black carrot (BC), grape juice (...

Effects of starch on the digestibility of gluten under different thermal processing conditions.

Gluten and starch are the primary ingredients of the wheat. The complex reaction between the gluten and starch will occur during the thermal food processing, which will affect the digestibility. The effects of proteins on the digestibility of starch have been reported, but the effects of starch on the digestibility of proteins have not been well-researched. In this paper, the effects of starch on gluten digestion during the heating process were studied by the gluten-starch simulated system, and it was found...


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