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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of animal science RSS

12:38 EDT 25th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

The US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health manage PubMed.gov which comprises of more than 29 million records, papers, reports for biomedical literature, including MEDLINE, life science and medical journals, articles, reviews, reports and  books.

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For example view all recent relevant publications on Epigenetics and associated publications and clincial trials.

Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 912 from Journal of animal science

Butyrate promotes slow-twitch myofiber formation and mitochondrial biogenesis in finishing pigs via inducing specific microRNAs and PGC-1α expression1.

The present study aimed to investigate the influence of dietary butyrate supplementation on muscle fiber-type composition and mitochondrial biogenesis of finishing pigs, and the underlying mechanisms. Thirty-two LY (Landrace × Yorkshire) growing pigs with BW of 64.9 ± 5.7 kg were randomly allotted to either control (basal diet) or butyrate diets (0.3% butyrate sodium). Compared with the control group, diet supplemented with butyrate tended to increase average daily gain (P < 0.10). Pigs fed butyrate diet ...

Impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on muscle metabolism of growing pigs1.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus is one of the most economically significant pig pathogens worldwide. However, the metabolic explanation for reductions in tissue accretion observed in growing pigs remains poorly defined. Additionally, PRRS virus challenge is often accompanied by reduced feed intake, making it difficult to discern which effects are virus vs. feed intake driven. To account for this, a pair-fed model was employed to examine the effects of PRRS challenge and nutrient r...

Genetic parameters of plasma and ruminal volatile fatty acids in sheep fed alfalfa pellets and genetic correlations with enteric methane emissions1.

Animal-to-animal variation in methane (CH4) emissions determined in respiration chambers has a genetic basis, but rapid phenotyping methods that can be applied on-farm are required to enable increased genetic progress by the farming industry. Fermentation of carbohydrates in the rumen results in the formation of VFA with hydrogen (H2) as a byproduct that is used for CH4 formation. Generally, fermentation pathways leading to acetate are associated with the most H2 production, less H2 formation is associated ...

Late Gestation Supplementation of Corn Dried Distiller's Grains Plus Solubles to Beef Cows Fed A Low-Quality Forage: III. Effects on Mammary Gland Blood Flow, Colostrum and Milk Production, and Calf Body Weights.

Objectives were to investigate the effects of supplementation with corn dried distiller's grains plus solubles (DDGS) to late gestating beef cows on arterial blood flow to the mammary glands during late gestation and early lactation; colostrum and milk production; dystocia and immunity; and calf BW. Cows were fed a control (CON; n = 15; 5.1% CP; 36.2% ADF) diet consisting of 90% corn stover and 10% corn silage on a dry basis offered ad libitum or CON diet with supplementation of DDGS (0.30% of BW; SUP n = 1...

Effects of dietary roughage neutral detergent fiber levels and flint corn processing method on growth performance, carcass characteristics, feeding behavior and rumen morphometrics of Bos indicus cattle.

Flint corn processing method [coarse ground corn (CGC; 3.2 mm average particle size) or steam-flaked corn (SFC; 0.360 kg/L flake density)] was evaluated in conjunction with 4 levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as roughage source (RNDF; 4, 7, 10, and 13%; dry matter basis) to determine impact on growth performance, carcass characteristics, starch utilization, feeding behavior, and rumen morphometrics of Bos indicus beef cattle. Two hundred and forty Nellore bulls were blocke...

Effect of ruminally protected arginine and lysine supplementation on serum amino acids, performance and carcass traits of feedlot steers.

One hundred and twenty Angus × Simmental steers [322 ± 4.8 kg initial body weight (BW)] were blocked by BW and randomly allocated to 4 treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial to evaluate the effects of supplemental arginine (none or 63 g/d of a 15.6% metabolizable arginine), supplemental lysine (none or 40 g/d of a 25% metabolizable lysine) and their interaction on performance and carcass composition of feedlot steers during a 170-d feeding period. The basal diet [dry matter (DM) basis] contained 52% dr...

Associations between residual feed intake and apparent nutrient digestibility, in vitro methane producing activity, and volatile fatty acid concentrations in growing beef cattle.

The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI) and DM and nutrient digestibility, in vitro methane production, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in growing beef cattle. Residual feed intake was measured in growing Santa Gertrudis steers (Study 1; n = 57; initial BW = 291.1 ± 33.8 kg) and Brangus heifers (Study 2; n = 468; initial BW = 271.4 ± 26.1 kg) fed a high-roughage based diet (ME = 2.1 Mcal/kg DM) for 70 d in a Calan gate feeding barn. Ani...

Lipid peroxidation impairs growth and viability of nursery pigs reared under commercial conditions.

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner on growth, health, and oxidative stress status of nursery pigs. A total of 2,200 weaned pigs (5.95 ± 0.20 kg BW) were housed in 100 pens (22 pigs per pen) in a RCBD based on initial BW and sex. Pigs were randomly assigned within blocks to 5 dietary treatments, consisting of a corn-soybean meal based diet supplemented with 5% of either control corn oil (iodine value = 118, FFA = 0.06%, anisidine value ...

The Piglet Mycobiome During the Weaning Transition: A Pilot Study.

The importance of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of animals is recognized as a critical player in host health. Recently, the significance of the mycobiome has been recognized, but culture-independent studies are limited, especially in swine. Weaning is a time of stress, dietary changes, and a predisposition to infections, making it a time point of interest to industry. In this pilot study, we sought to assess and characterize the mycobiome in the feces of swine from birth through the critical ...

Linear classification scores in beef cattle as predictors of genetic merit for individual carcass primal cut yields1.

Having access to early predictions of both the genetic merit and expected phenotypic performance of an individual or its progeny can contribute to more informed decision-making. The objective here was to evaluate the usefulness of routinely available subjectively scored linear conformation information on live animals to predict genetic merit for primal carcass cut yields of their relatives. Data on 6 muscular and 6 skeletal traits on 43,078 live animals were used; the weights of up to 14 primal cuts plus 3 ...

Transmammary delivery of firocoxib to piglets reduces stress and improves average daily gain after castration, tail docking, and teeth clipping1.

Painful processing procedures in piglets such as tail docking, castration, and teeth clipping are an emerging animal welfare concern. We hypothesized that transmammary delivery of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, firocoxib, would reduce pain associated with processing in piglets. This study compared the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and tissue residue concentrations of 4 doses of firocoxib (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/kg) administered to sows and delivered to nursing piglets prior to processing. Si...

Effects of feeding juniper as a roughage on feedlot performance, carcass measurements, meat sensory attributes, and volatile aroma compounds of yearling Rambouillet wethers.

The majority of U.S. lambs are born during late winter or early spring, which can create downstream variability in carcass quality if commercial lamb harvest is to be relatively constant throughout the year. Flavor is an important quality determining characteristic of sheep meat and is influenced, in part, by animal age at harvest. However, management practices to mitigate the risk of objectionable flavors in meat from old crop lambs or yearlings are not well known. Yearling (16.8 ± 0.14 mo) Rambouillet we...

The impact of selection using residual average daily gain and marbling EPDs on growth, performance, and carcass traits in Angus steers1.

One hundred ninety-one Angus steers (age = 546 d ± 33.5; BW = 36.4 kg ± 4.2), sired by bulls divergently selected for feed efficiency over a 3-yr period, were used to compare growth, efficiency, body composition, and carcass characteristics. Selected Angus sires were either high (Hi) or low (Lo) for residual average daily gain (RADG) expected progeny differences (EPDs) and either high (Hi) or low (AVG; breed average) for marbling (MARB) EPDs. Steer weight and body composition, via ultrasound, were measure...

Effects of dietary exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation characteristics of beef steers fed high- and low-quality growing diets1.

The effects of dietary pre-treatment with fibrolytic enzyme- based cocktail were evaluated in two studies: 1) in vitro true digestibility; and 2) intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal fermentation of beef steers fed growing diets. For the in vitro assessment, ruminal inoculum was collected from 2 steers (BW = 543 ± 45 kg; 4-h after feeding; growing diets) and enzymes included or not (Trichoderma reesei fermentation extract; 0.75 µl/g of substrate DM). Within in vitro batches (n = 4), 12 sub...

Level and source of fat in the diet of gestating beef cows: I. Effects on the pre-partum performance of the dam and birth weight of the progeny.

A two-year study was conducted to evaluate the effects of level and source of fat in the diet of gestating beef cows on their pre-partum performance and birth weight of progeny. Each year, 75 multiparous (≥3 calving) pregnant Angus cows were stratified by BW (663±21.5 kg) and BCS (2.6±0.12; 1 to 5 scale), and randomly assigned to one of fifteen outdoor pens. Subsequently, each pen was randomly assigned to one of three (n=5) treatments: a low-fat diet (LF; 1.4±0.12% EE) consisting of grass-legume hay, b...

Level and source of fat in the diet of gestating beef cows: II. Effects on the postpartum performance of the dam and the progeny.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of level and source of fat in the diet of gestating beef cows on the postpartum performance of the dam and the progeny. Each year, 75 mature pregnant (183±4.8 d until calving) Angus cows with similar BW (663±21.5 kg) and BCS (2.6±0.12; 1 to 5 scale) were randomly assigned to one of 15 outdoor pens. Each pen was assigned to one of three iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous treatments: a low-fat diet (LF; 1.4±0.12% EE), and two high-fat diets (HF; 3.3±0.20% EE) in...

Efficiency of utilizing standardized ileal digestible lysine and threonine for whole body protein retention in pregnant gilts during early, mid and late gestation.

Two experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of utilizing SID Lys and Thr for whole body protein retention (kSIDLys and kSIDThr) in pregnant gilts. In Exp. 1, 45 gilts (158.0 ± 8.0 kg at d 39.4 ± 1 of gestation) in two groups were used in a 3-period nitrogen (N)-balance study. Gilts were assigned to one of 4 diets set to provide 60, 70, 80 and 90% of predicted daily SID Lys requirement for protein retention (NRC, 2012) in each of early (d 41-52, 10.44 g/d), mid (d 68-79, 9.60 g/d) and late g...

Predicting residual feed intake status using rumen microbial profiles in ewe lambs.

Including feed efficiency as a trait for selection has gained interest in the sheep industry because it can result in reduced feed inputs or improve stocking rates, both of which translate into increased profitability for the producer. It is of interest whether the feed efficiency status of a testing population of sheep could be predicted using rumen microbial profiles associated with divergent feed efficiency status in a training population of sheep. Two populations of ewes were fed the same diet and each ...

Maternal immune modulation prior to embryo arrival in the uterus is important for establishment of pregnancy in cattle.

In 1953, Sir Peter Medawar first recognized the allogeneic properties of a developing conceptus and rationalized that an "immune tolerant" physiological state must exist during pregnancy. Early theories speculated that the conceptus evaded the maternal immune system completely, but 40 years after Medawar's observations, Wegmann proposed that the maternal immune system shifts the cytokine profile away from inflammatory cytokine production when an embryo is present. The economic consequences and production lo...

Effect of lipopolysaccharide-induced immune stimulation and maternal fish oil and microalgae supplementation during late pregnancy on nursery pig hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function.

The current study used Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to investigate whether maternal immune challenge during late gestation altered programming of the offspring hypothalamus and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Additionally, interactions of maternal diet, supplementation with fish oil (FO) or microalgae (AL), and complex vs. simple weaning diets were investigated. Briefly, Landrace x Yorkshire sows (N=48) were randomly assigned to diets supplemented with FO, AL or a standard gestation...

Hormonal regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) gene expression in granulosa and theca cells of cattle1.

Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) stimulates angiogenesis and is associated with increased vascularity in ovarian follicles of cattle. The objectives of this study were to investigate the developmental and hormonal regulation of VEGFA expression in ovarian granulosa and theca cells of cattle. Bovine ovaries were collected from a local slaughterhouse and granulosa (GC) and theca cells (TC) were collected from small (SM; 1 to 5 mm) and large (LG; 8 to 20 mm) follicles. Cells were collected fresh or...

Description, evaluation and validation of the Teagasc Pig Production Model.

The Teagasc Pig Production Model (TPPM), a stochastic simulation model of a farrow-to-finish pig farm, was developed to investigate effects of changes in production systems on farm profitability. The model simulates, on a weekly basis, the annual production of a farm. Biological [e.g. herd size, number of litters/sow/year, mortality rates (%)], physical (e.g. infrastructure) and technical (e.g. feeding practices) variables and their associated costs are included as components of the model. These inputs are ...

Exogenous porcine somatotropin stimulates mammary development in late-pregnant gilts.

The goal of this project was to determine if increasing insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in late pregnancy can stimulate mammogenesis in gilts. Yorkshire × Landrace gilts of a similar body weight (BW; 196.2 ± 6.2 kg) on day 89 of gestation were separated in 2 groups, namely, controls (CTL, n = 17) that were injected with sterile water, and porcine somatotropin-treated (pST, n = 20) that received injections of 5 mg of pST (Reporcin). Injections were given daily from days 90 to 109 of ges...

Effect of live yeast supplementation to gestating sows and nursery piglets on postweaning growth performance and nutrient digestibility.

The objectives of the current study were to determine the effects of live yeast (LY) supplementation of sows during gestation and lactation and to determine the effects of supplementation of their offspring after weaning on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. A total of 40 sows were assigned to two dietary treatments (control vs. LY) based on parity and expected farrowing date. Birth weight, weaning weight, litter size and mortality were measured. After weaning, 128 mixed-sex piglets (64 from eac...

Prepartum fatty acid supplementation in sheep IV. Effect of calcium salts with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the maternal and finishing diet on lamb liver and adipose tissue during the lamb finishing period.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to ewes during late gestation on finishing lamb liver and adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) profile and gene expression. Lambs born from ewes supplemented with Ca salts of EPA + DHA, or palm FA distillate (PFAD) high in palmitic and oleic acid at 0.39% DM during the last 50 d of gestation were used. Lambs were weaned at 61 d of age and adapted to a high concentrate diet for 1.5 ...


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