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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) RSS

08:15 EDT 24th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 290 from Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)

Relationship between brachial and popliteal artery low-flow mediated constriction in older adults: Impact of aerobic fitness on vascular endothelial function.

We previously observed that brachial artery (BA) low-flow mediated constriction (L-FMC) is inversely related to aerobic fitness (i.e., VOpeak) in older adults (OA). However, it is unclear if an L-FMC response is elicited in the popliteal artery (POP) or if a similar inverse relationship with aerobic fitness exists. Considering that the POP experiences larger shear stress fluctuations during sedentary behaviors and traditional lower limb modes of aerobic exercise, we tested the hypotheses that: 1) heterogene...

Low-intensity exercise induces acute shifts in liver and skeletal muscle substrate metabolism, but not chronic adaptations in tissue oxidative capacity.

Adaptations in hepatic and skeletal muscle substrate metabolism following acute and chronic (6 weeks; 5 days/week; 1 h/day) low-intensity treadmill exercise were tested in healthy male C57BL/6J mice. Low-intensity exercise maximizes lipid utilization; therefore, we hypothesized pathways involved in lipid metabolism would be most robustly affected. Acute exercise nearly depleted liver glycogen immediately post-exercise (0h), while hepatic triglyceride (TAG) stores increased in the early stages after exercise...

Diurnal repeated exercise promotes slow-wave activity and fast-sigma power during sleep with increase in body temperature: a human crossover trial.

The effects of exercise on sleep have been explored from various perspectives, but little is known about how the effects of acute exercise on sleep are produced through physiological functions.We used a protocol of multiple daytime sessions of moderate-intensity aerobic exerciseand examined the subsequenteffects on sleep structure, core body temperature, distal-proximal skin temperature gradient, and subjective parameters. Fourteen healthy men who did not exercise regularly were evaluated under the baseline...

1-D Network Simulations for Evaluating Regional Flow and Pressure Distributions in the Healthy and Asthmatic Human Lungs.

This study aims to introduce a 1-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for airway resistance and lung compliance to examine the relationship between airway resistance, pressure, and regional flow distribution. We employed five healthy and five asthmatic subjects who have dynamic CT scans (4-D CT) along with two static scans at total lung capacity and functional residual capacity. Fractional air-volume change (ΔV) from 4-D CT was used for a validation of the 1-D CFD model. We extracted diameter ratio f...

EDWARD F. ADOLPH DISTINGUISHED LECTURE. CONTEMPORARY MODEL OF MUSCLE MICROCIRCULATION: GATEWAY TO FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION.

This review strikes at the very heart of how the microcirculation functions to facilitate blood-tissue oxygen, substrate and metabolite fluxes in skeletal muscle. Contemporary evidence, marshalled from animals and humans using the latest techniques, challenges iconic perspectives little-changed over the past century. Those perspectives include: The presence of contractile or collapsible capillaries in muscle, unitary control by pre-capillary sphincters, capillary recruitment at the onset of contractions and...

The effect of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on sympathetic vasoconstriction at rest and during exercise.

Dietary nitrate (NO) supplementation has been shown to reduce resting blood pressure (BP). However, the mechanism(s) responsible for the reduction in BP has not been identified. Dietary NO supplementation may increase nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and NO has been shown to inhibit sympathetic vasoconstriction. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that acute dietary NO supplementation would attenuate sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness at rest and during exercise. ...

High Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation in a Sub-Acute Animal Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

High Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation (HF-SCS) applied at the T2 spinal level results in physiologic activation of the inspiratory muscles in C2 spinal sectioned dogs. While the bulbo-spinal fibers were cut, they likely survived the duration of acute experiments and inspiratory muscle activation may have involved stimulation of these fibers. In 2 anesthetized, C2 paralyzed, intubated and mechanically ventilated dogs, HF-SCS (300Hz) was applied at the T2 level. The effectiveness of HF-SCS in generating insp...

Deep ocean minerals inhibit IL-6 and IGFIIR hypertrophic signalling pathways to attenuate diabetes-induced hypertrophy in rat hearts.

We previously reported that deep sea water (DSW) prolongs the life span of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by the compensatory augmentation of the insulin like growth factor (IGF)-I survival signalling and inhibition of apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effects of DSW on cardiac hypertrophy in diabetic rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rats by using STZ (65 mg/kg) administered via IP injection. DSW was prepared by mixing DSW mineral extracts and desalinated water. Different dosages of D...

Eccentric training enhances the αB-crystallin binding to the myofibrils and prevents skeletal muscle weakness in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat.

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) frequently suffer from muscle weakness. We examined whether eccentric training prevents skeletal muscle weakness in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat, a widely used animal model for RA. AIA was induced in the knees of Wistar rats by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. To induce eccentric contractions (ECCs), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (45 V) was applied to the plantar flexor muscles simultaneously with forced dorsiflexion of the ankle joint (0-40˚) ...

RESPIRATORY MODULATION OF PERIPHERAL VASOCONSTRICTION:A MODELING PERSPECTIVE.

While respiratory sinus arrhythmia and blood pressure variability have been investigated extensively, there have been far fewer studies of the respiratory modulation of peripheral blood flow in humans. Existing studies have been based primarily on noninvasive measurements using digit photoplethysmography and laser-doppler flowmetry. The cumulative knowledge derived from these studies suggest that respiration can contribute to fluctuations in peripheral blood flow and volume through a combination of mechanic...

Impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation in trained breath-hold divers.

Breath-hold divers (BHD) experience repeated bouts of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia with large increases in blood pressure. However, the impact of long-term breath-hold diving on cerebrovascular control remains poorly understood. The ability of cerebral blood vessels to respond rapidly to changes in blood pressure represent the property of dynamic autoregulation. The current investigation tested the hypothesis that breath-hold diving impairs dynamic autoregulation to a transient hypotensive stimulus. Seven...

Fatigue-Independent Alterations in Muscle Activation and Effort Perception During Forearm Exercise: The Role of Local Oxygen Delivery.

The oxygen conforming response (OCR) of skeletal muscle refers to a down regulation of muscle force for a given muscle activation when oxygen delivery (OD) is reduced, which is rapidly reversed when OD is restored. We tested the hypothesis that the OCR exists in voluntary human exercise and results in compensatory changes in muscle activation to maintain force output, thereby altering perception of effort. In 8-men and 8-women, electromyography (EMG), oxyhemoglobin (OHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb), forearm b...

Water deprivation does not augment sympathetic or pressor responses to sciatic afferent nerve stimulation in rats or to static exercise in humans.

Excess dietary salt intake excites central sympathetic networks which may be related to plasma hypernatremia. Plasma hypernatremia also occurs following water deprivation (WD).

Distinct muscle-tendon interaction during running at different speeds and in different loading conditions.

The interaction between the Achilles tendon and the triceps surae muscles seems to be modulated differently with various task configurations. Here we tested the hypothesis that the increased forces and ankle joint work during running under contrasting conditions (altered speed or load) would be met by different, time-dependent adjustments at the muscle-tendon level. Ultrasonography, electromyography, kinematics and ground reaction force measurements were used to examine Achilles tendon, gastrocnemius and so...

Effects of high PEEP and fluid administration on systemic circulation and pulmonary microcirculation and alveoli in a canine model.

This study aimed to determine the response of systemic circulation and pulmonary microcirculation and alveoli to high PEEP (Positive end-expiratory pressure) in a canine model.

Distinct modalities of eccentric exercise: different recipes, not the same dish.

Passive Force Enhancement in Striated Muscle.

Passive force enhancement is defined as the increase in passive, steady-state, isometric force of an actively stretched muscle compared to the same muscle stretched passively to that same length. Passive force enhancement is long-lasting, increases with increasing muscle length and increasing stretch magnitudes, contributes to the residual force enhancement in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and is typically only observed at muscle lengths where passive forces occur naturally. Passive force enhancement is typi...

Muscle thixotropy: where are we now?

Relaxed skeletal muscle has an inbuilt resistance to movement. In particular, the resistance manifests itself as a substantial stiffness for small movements. The stiffness is impermanent, because it forms only when the muscle is stationary for some time and is reduced upon active or passive movement. Because the resistance to movement increases with time at rest and is reduced by movement, this behaviour has become known as muscle thixotropy. In this short review, we describe the phenomenon of thixotropy an...

Reply to "Letter to the Editor: Two of the significant omissions from a 'general' model of respiratory energy transduction".

CORRIGENDUM.

Letter to the Editor: Two of the significant omissions from a "general" model of respiratory energy transduction.

CORRIGENDUM.

micro(RNA)-managing muscle wasting.

Progressive skeletal muscle wasting is a natural consequence of aging and is common in chronic and acute diseases. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (strength) often leads to frailty, decreased independence and increased risk of hospitalization. Despite progress made in our understanding of mechanisms underlying muscle wasting, there is still no treatment available, with exercise training and dietary supplementation improving, but not restoring muscle mass and/or function. There has been slow progre...

The Alcohol Breath Test in Practice: Effects of Exhaled Volume.

Alcohol breath test (ABT) measurements are sensitive to the volume of the exhaled breath. While a minimum breath volume is required for a legally acceptable sample, any additional increase in the volume of exhaled air increases the measurement of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC). Using a sample of 115 ABTs collected by police agencies for evidentiary purposes, we studied the influence of exhaled air volume on the measurement of BrAC. The 115 ABTs were performed on 30 different Alcotest 9510s. Each of the...

EFFECTS OF TRAINING, DETRAINING, AND RETRAINING ON STRENGTH, HYPERTROPHY, AND MYONUCLEAR NUMBER IN HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE.

Previously trained mouse muscles acquire strength and volume faster than naïve muscles; it has been suggested that this is related to increased myonuclear density. The present study aimed to determine whether a previously strength-trained leg (mem-leg) would respond better to a period of strength training than a previously untrained leg (con-leg). Nine men and 10 women performed unilateral strength training (T1) for 10 weeks, followed by 20 weeks of detraining (DT) and a 5-week bilateral retraining period ...


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