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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of autism and developmental disorders RSS

07:53 EDT 26th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 271 from Journal of autism and developmental disorders

An In-Depth Analysis of Expository Writing in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Using detailed linguistic analysis, this study examined the expository writing abilities of school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to neurotypical (NT) children. Associations between executive functioning (EF) and writing ability in children with and without ASD were also explored. Compared to NT peers, children with ASD wrote shorter expository texts that contained more grammatical errors, and needed more assistance from the experimenter to complete the writing assessment. Ho...

Theory of Mind (ToM) Performance in High Functioning Autism (HFA) and Schizotypal-Schizoid Personality Disorders (SSPD) Patients.

The similarities between high functioning autism (HFA) and schizotypal-schizoid personality disorder (SSPD) in terms of social cognition and interpersonal deficits may lead to confusion in symptom interpretation, and consequently result in misdiagnosis. Thus, this study aims to investigate differences in mentalizing with particular interest on the socio-cognitive and socio-affective dimensions. Three Advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) tests were applied in 35 patients with HFA, 30 patients with SSPD and 36 healt...

Efficacy of Group-Based Organised Physical Activity Participation for Social Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

The aim of this novel review and meta-analysis was to clarify the effects of group-based organised physical activity (OPA) for social and communicative outcomes in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Searches yielded 4347 articles. Eleven were identified for review and seven for meta-analysis. Pooled statistical results revealed a non-significant effect for communication (k = 4; g = 0.13, CI [- 0.12, 0.38], p = .13) and a significant small-medium improvement in overall social functio...

Vestibular Function in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Systematic Review.

This review was performed to investigate the characteristics of vestibular dysfunctions in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). The majority of the included studies reported central and/or peripheral vestibular aberrations in a subset of these children. These alterations may result in symptoms of distorted motor coordination or postural instability, and might explain some of the balance problems observed in this population. However, high-quality studies with an extensive vestibular test batter...

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder's Lying is Correlated with Their Working Memory But Not Theory of Mind.

The present study examined the role of executive function in lying for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit children's self-protective lies and the Hide-and-seek task was used to elicit children's self-benefiting lies. Results showed that children with ASD told fewer lies in the two deception tasks compared to children with intellectual disability (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. Furthermore, children with ASD's lying were positively...

Differences in Cognition and Behaviour in Multiplex and Simplex Autism: Does Prior Experience Raising a Child with Autism Matter?

Previous research has found multiplex (MPX) children have an advantage in cognition compared to simplex (SPX) children. However, MPX parent's previous experience with older diagnosed siblings has not been considered. We used a large database sample to investigate the MPX advantage and contribution of birth order. Children from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) were stratified into first- (MPX, n  = 152) and second-affected MPX (MPX, n  = 143), SPX (n  = 111), and only-child SPX (SPX...

Pediatric Prolonged-Release Melatonin for Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Impact on Child Behavior and Caregiver's Quality of Life.

A randomized, 13-weeks, placebo-controlled double-blind study in 125 subjects aged 2-17.5 years with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Smith-Magenis syndrome and insomnia demonstrated efficacy and safety of easily-swallowed prolonged-release melatonin mini-tablets (PedPRM; 2-5 mg) in improving sleep duration and onset. Treatment effects on child behavior and caregiver's quality of life were evaluated. PedPRM treatment resulted in significant improvement in externalizing but not internalizing behavior (Strengths...

Trajectories of Posture Development in Infants With and Without Familial Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

This study investigated early posture development prospectively in infants at heightened (HR) vs. low risk (Low Risk; LR) for ASD. Fourteen HR infants diagnosed with ASD (HR-ASD), 17 HR infants with language delay (HR-LD), 29 HR infants with no diagnosis (HR-ND), and 25 LR infants were videotaped at home for 25 min during everyday activities and play at 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 months. All postures were coded and the sustainment source was identified for supported postures. Relative to LR infants, HR-ASD infa...

Brief Report: Olfactory Adaptation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Olfactory adaptation is an important process that allows the individual to adjust to changes in the environment. This process has been proposed to be aberrant in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, few studies have examined olfactory adaptation in children with ASD. We examined olfactory adaptation in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children using a pulse ejection system, which resolved problems associated with previous laboratory-based olfactory psychophysical studies...

Young Children with ASD Participate in the Same Level of Physical Activity as Children Without ASD: Implications for Early Intervention to Maintain Good Health.

Primary-school-aged children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported to engage in lower levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to typically developing (TD) children (Jones et al. in PLoS ONE, 12(2):1-23, 2017). Levels of MVPA in young children with ASD remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate MVPA in 4-to-7-year-old children with (n = 37) and without (n = 40) ASD, to determine if MVPA is related to ASD diagnosis; and examine correlates to bet...

Perceived Barriers and Existing Challenges in Participation of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: "He Did Not Understand and No One Else Seemed to Understand Him".

Social participation is one of the most important predictors of the children's physical and mental health. Although it is evidenced that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have restricted social participation, it is unclear which factors play a significant role. This research aimed to uncover perceived barriers of social participation by involving 26 stakeholders including parents of children with ASD, youth with ASD, and clinicians working with individuals with ASD in focus groups and interviews....

"I'm Destined to Ace This": Work Experience Placement During High School for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

As postsecondary outcomes of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are poor, there is a need for programs that aim to improve employment and education outcomes. This study employed a grounded theory approach to explore the key factors contributing to successful work placement experience and the perceived benefits of these placements from the perspective of adolescents with ASD (n = 5), their parents (n = 6) and employers (n = 6). Key factors contributing to success include preparing fo...

Preparing Children with Autism for Transition to Mainstream School and Perspectives on Supporting Positive School Experiences.

School readiness is important to a positive start and success in school but children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at risk of not being school-ready. This study aimed to explore parent and therapist perspectives on school readiness skills of children with ASD and factors impacting on a positive mainstream school experience. A mixed methods design was used. Key findings were that school readiness depends on child and school factors, with social skills the most important child factor. The child's ex...

B. Siegel: The Politics of Autism : Oxford University Press, 2018, xix + 325 pp including bibliographic references and index, ISBN 9780199360994, $29.95 (hardcover).

Child and Family Characteristics that Predict Autism Spectrum Disorder Specialty Clinic Appointment Attendance and Alignment with Providers.

We examined factors contributing to initial appointment attendance, alignment between parents' pre-visit and clinicians' diagnostic impressions, and family commitment to follow-ups at an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specialty clinic. Sample sizes were n = 6558 (initial), n = 1430 (alignment), and n = 1353 (follow-up). Parents completed surveys and clinicians provided their ASD diagnostic impressions. When children were not receiving intervention, families were less likely to keep their initial...

Interventions for Repetitive Behavior in Young Children with Autism: A Survey of Behavioral Practices.

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display social-communication deficits and present with rigid and repetitive patterns of behavior and/or interests (RRBIs). Compared to interventions for social-communication skills, less attention has been given to RRBIs, especially with regard to interventions for young children. We surveyed 128 behavior analysts who implemented interventions for young children with ASD on their use of 16 practices and one assessment for the treatment of RRBIs. The majority of o...

Mood Disorders in High-Functioning Autism: The Importance of Alexithymia and Emotional Regulation.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have co-morbid anxiety and depression. Alexithymia and emotion regulation difficulties are commonly seen in individuals with ASD and in mood disorders. We hypothesized that alexithymia and emotional regulation would mediate the relationship between autistic features and anxiety/depression symptom severity. We collected data about emotional regulation, alexithymia, autistic symptoms and depression/anxiety in a sample of 64 young adults with ASD. We constr...

A Protocol for Sedation Free MRI and PET Imaging in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) present unparalleled opportunities to investigate the neural basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, challenges such as deficits in social interaction, anxiety around new experiences, impaired language abilities, and hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli make participating in neuroimaging studies challenging for individuals with ASD. In this commentary, we describe the existent training protocols for...

'Who Am I?': An Exploratory Study of the Relationships Between Identity, Acculturation and Mental Health in Autistic Adolescents.

Autistic adolescents are at increased risk of mental health difficulties. One potential factor contributing to this is identity development, although this hypothesis has been little explored. These adolescents also have to consider how autism forms their identity, a process called acculturation. This exploratory study examined the relationships between identity, acculturation and mental health in autistic adolescents. Twenty-four participants completed measures investigating identity, acculturation and ment...

Brief Report: Estimating the Dental Age of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Determining a patient's dental age is essential from the dental standpoint but can also have connotations of a forensic, anthropological and medicolegal nature. In this study, we assessed the correspondence between dental age and chronological age in a group of 50 children with autism spectrum disorders, with a chronological age range of 3-17 years. The dental age was calculated using panoramic radiography images, applying linear regression models derived from the classical indices by Nolla and Demirjian....

Brief Report: Neuropsychological Testing and Informant-Ratings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, or Comorbid Diagnosis.

This study aimed to examine the neuropsychological correlates of child patients diagnosed with ADHD, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or comorbid ASD + ADHD through a multidisciplinary ASD evaluation clinic. Patients completed standardized tests of intellectual, attention, social-affective/cognitive, and executive functioning; and a semi-structured assessment commonly used for autism diagnosis. The majority of patients were medicated for ADHD concerns during testing. Parents and teachers also completed i...

Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Platelet 5-HT Binding in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Elevated whole blood serotonin (WB5-HT) is a well-replicated biomarker in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Decreased platelet serotonin receptor 5-HT binding has been reported in ASD. WB5-HT levels and platelet 5-HT specific binding were obtained from 110 individuals with ASD and 18 controls. Individuals with ASD had significantly higher WB5-HT levels than controls. There was no difference in the platelet 5-HT specific binding between groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed that platelet 5-HT binding s...

Targeting IEP Social Goals for Children with Autism in an Inclusive Summer Camp.

Children with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate challenges in socialization that can interfere with their participation in common childhood activities and can persist or worsen if not addressed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether individualized education program (IEP) social goals could be targeted by a supervised paraprofessional during a short-term inclusive summer camp program. Data were collected using a concurrent multiple baseline design across four children. Results showed that follow...

Building Skills, Confidence, and Wellness: Psychosocial Effects of Soft Skills Training for Young Adults with Autism.

Recognizing that social functioning and mental health are linked to social participation and employment outcomes, this pilot study examined the preliminary outcomes of an eight-session, work-related social skills training program designed for young adults with high-functioning autism (HFASD). Results indicate statistically significant improvements in social cognition, social function, and social confidence. Furthermore, participants (n = 26) reported statistically significant reductions in anxiety, and ...

Social Decision Making in Autistic Adolescents: The Role of Theory of Mind, Executive Functioning and Emotion Regulation.

Social decision making is often challenging for autistic individuals. Twenty autistic adolescents made decisions in the socially interactive context of a one-shot ultimatum game, and performance was compared to a large matched typical reference sample. Theory of mind, executive functioning and emotion regulation were measured via direct assessments, self- and parent report. Relative to the reference sample, autistic adolescents proposed fewer fair offers, and this was associated with poorer theory of mind. ...


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