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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of biomechanical engineering RSS

08:29 EDT 23rd October 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 289 from Journal of biomechanical engineering

Relationship Between Lateral Patellar Stability Following Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy for Varying Patellofemoral Geometries.

The geometry of the patellofemoral joint affects function and pathology. However, the impact of trochlear groove depth on treatments for patellar instability and pain is not clear. Tibial tubercle osteotomy is a common surgical intervention for patellar instability where the tibial insertion of the patellar tendon is translated to align the extensor mechanism and stabilize the joint. The aim of this work was to investigate the interaction between trochlear groove depth and patellar tendon insertion and thei...

Modeling Physiological Flow Variation in Fontan Models with 4d Flow Mri, Particle Image Velocimetry, and Arterial Spin Labeling.

The Fontan procedure is a successful palliation for single ventricle defect. Yet, a number of complications still occur in Fontan patients due to abnormal blood flow dynamics, necessitating improved flow analysis and treatment methods. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a suitable method for such flow analysis. However, limitations on altering physiological blood flow conditions in the patient while in the MRI bore inhibit experimental investigation of a variety of factors that c...

A 2-d Model of Hypertension-induced Arterial Remodeling with Account for Stress Interaction Between Elastin and Collagen.

We propose a novel structure-based 2-D mathematical model of hypertension-induced arterial remodeling. The model is built in the framework of the constrained mixture theory and global growth approach, utilizing a recently proposed structure-based constitutive model of arterial tissue that accounts for the individual natural configurations of and stress interaction between elastin and collagen. The basic novel predictive result is that provided remodeling causes a change in the elastin/collagen mass fraction...

Diversifying Bioengineering Design Education with an International Partnership.

The field of engineering is increasingly appreciating the value of diversity for innovative design solutions. Successful engineering depends on our ability to explore constrained parameter spaces for finding the best solutions, and more diverse minds and experiences enable us to explore the entire potential solution space more thoroughly, more quickly, and more creatively. With a goal to expand the diversity of experiences and mindsets in our undergraduate bioengineering curricula, Arusha Technical College ...

Selective Thermal Stimulation Delays the Progression of Vasoconstriction During Body Cooling.

The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of Selective Thermal Stimulation (STS) as a method to upregulate glabrous skin blood flow. STS is accomplished by mild surface heating along the spinal cord. 4 healthy subjects were tested in this study. Each participated in a control experiment and an intervention experiment (STS). Both experiments included establishing a maximum level of vasodilation, considered unique to a subject on a test day, and then cooling to a maximum level of vasoconstrictio...

Relationship Between Cervical, Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Alignments in Automotive Seated Posture.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal alignments in one automotive occupant seated posture. An image data set of the spinal column in the automotive seated posture, previously acquired by an upright open Magnetic Resonance Imaging system, were reanalysed in this study. Spinal alignments were presented by the geometrical centres of the vertebral bodies extracted from the image data. Cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal alignments were analy...

Measuring Three-dimensional Knee Kinematics Using a Femoral Clamp: Accuracy, Repeatability and Reproducibility in Gait.

The ability to measure full six degrees-of-freedom knee joint kinematics is critical in the diagnosis of knee pathology. Soft tissue artifact (STA) remains the greatest source of error in measurement knee kinematics. The purpose of this study is to present a new femoral clamp to reduce STA at the thigh while preserving the natural gait pattern. Knee joint kinematics during gait was measured for six healthy subjects by using the femoral clamp and a rigid cluster-based technique. Performance was assessed in t...

Stroke Prevents Exercise-induced Gains in Bone Microstructure But Not Composition in Mice.

Ischemic stroke induces rapid loss in bone mineral density up to 13 times greater than during normal aging, leading to markedly increased risk of fracture. Little is known about skeletal changes following stroke beyond density loss. In this study we use a mild-moderate middle cerebral artery occlusion model to determine the effects of ischemic stroke without bedrest on bone microstructure, dynamic bone formation, and tissue composition. Twenty-seven 12-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice received either a stroke or...

Acceleration of Clinical Innovation: a Collaboration Between Biomedical Engineering, Nursing, and Honors Undergraduates.

At the University of Alabama at Birmingham, a partnership formed between faculty in the School of Nursing, the School of Engineering, the Honors College, and UAB Hospital to facilitate interaction between students of biomedical engineering and clinicians. Clinicians needed a way to address their unsolved problems in delivery of health care and students needed a way to engage in meaningful real-world clinical experiences. The authors identified barriers to clinical innovation, created formal freshman and sop...

Differentiating Sitting, Standing and Walking Through Regional Plantar Pressure Characteristics.

Prolonged static weight bearing is thought to aggravate plantar heel pain and is common in the workplace, which may put employees at greater risk of developing plantar heel pain. However, objective measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in the workplace are lacking, making it difficult to establish or refute the connection between work exposure and plantar heel pain. Characterizing loading patterns during common workplace postures will enhance the understanding of foot function and inform th...

Multiobjective Design Optimization of a Biconcave Mobile-bearing Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty Considering Spinal Kinematics, Facet Joint Loading, and Metal-on-polyethylene Contact Mechanics.

Total disc arthroplasty (TDA) using an artificial disc (AD) is an attractive surgical technique for the treatment of spinal disorders, since it can maintain or restore spinal motion (unlike interbody fusion). However, adverse surgical outcomes of contemporary lumbar TDAs have been reported. We previously proposed a new mobile-bearing AD design concept featuring a biconcave ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene mobile core. The objective of this study was to develop an artificial neural network based mult...

Simulation of Brain Response to Non-contact Impacts Using Coupled Eulerian-lagrangian Method.

Finite element (FE) method has been widely used for gaining insights into the mechanical response of brain tissue during impacts. In this study, a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) formulation is implemented in impact simulations of a head system to overcome the mesh distortion difficulties due to large deformation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region and provide a biofidelic model of the interaction between the brain and skull. The head system used in our FE model is constructed from the transverse sect...

Ultrasound Imaging Characterization of Soft Tissue Dynamics of the Seated Human Body.

To characterize the dynamics of internal soft organs and external anatomical structures, this paper presents a system that combines medical ultrasound imaging with an optical tracker and a vertical exciter that imparts whole-body vibrations on seated subjects. The spatial and temporal accuracy of the system was validated using a phantom with calibrated internal structures, resulting in 0.224 mm maximum root mean square (r.m.s.) position error and 13 ms maximum synchronization error between sensors. In addit...

Axons Embedded in a Tissue CAN Withstand Larger Deformations Than Isolated Axons Before Mechanoporation Occurs.

Diffuse axonal injury is the pathological consequence of traumatic brain injury that most of all requires a multiscale approach in order to be, first, understood and then possibly prevented. While in fact the mechanical insult usually happens at the head (or macro) level, the consequences affect structures at the cellular (or micro level). The quest for axonal injury tolerances has so far been addressed both with experimental and computational approaches. On one hand, the experimental approach presents chal...

A Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience CURE in Biofluid Mechanics.

Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CURE) are a valuable tool to increase research exposure for larger undergraduate cohorts. We implemented a CURE within a senior level biofluid mechanics course that was primarily taught using a flipped classroom approach. Due to the large class size, the students analyzed data that was publicly available and produced by one of our laboratories. Student teams then developed hypotheses based on the data analysis and designed a set of in vitro and in vivo experi...

Protective Headgear Attenuates Forces on the Inner Table and Pressure in the Brain Parenchyma During Blast and Impact: An Experimental Study Using a Simulant-Based Surrogate Model of the Human Head.

Military personnel sustain head and brain injuries as a result of ballistic, blast, and blunt impact threats. Combat helmets are meant to protect the heads of these personnel during injury events. Studies show peak kinematics and kinetics are attenuated using protective headgear during impacts; however, there is limited experimental biomechanical literature that examines whether or not helmets mitigate peak mechanics delivered to the head and brain during blast. While the mechanical links between blast and ...

Combined Experimental Approach and Finite Element Modeling of Small Molecule Transport Through Joint Synovium to Measure Effective Diffusivity.

Trans-synovial solute transport plays a critical role in the clearance of intra-articularly delivered drugs. In this study, we present a computational finite element model of solute transport through the synovium validated by experiments on synovial explants. Unsteady diffusion of urea, a small uncharged molecule, was measured through devitalized porcine and human synovium using custom-built diffusion chambers. A multiphasic computational model was constructed and optimized with the experimental data to ext...

A Modified Parallel Plate Flow Chamber to Study Local Endothelial Response to Recirculating Disturbed Flow.

Atherosclerosis develops at arterial sites where endothelial cells (ECs) are exposed to low time-averaged shear stress, in particular in regions of recirculating disturbed flow. To understand how hemodynamics contributes to EC dysfunction in atheroma development, an in vitro parallel plate flow chamber gasket was modified with protruding baffles to produce large recirculating flow regions. Computational fluid dynamics predicted that more than 60% of the flow surface area was below the 12 dynes/cm2 atheropro...

An Interpretation of the Connection between Collagen Fibril Microstructure and Statically Determined Principal Stress Line Distribution in the Human Cornea.

Under the action of the physiological intraocular pressure the human cornea is stressed and reaches a deformed quasi-spherical configuration. If the deformed configuration is known, and the cornea is regarded as a membrane disregarding flexural behaviors, with the static analysis only is possible to estimate the distribution of the average stress across the thickness. In the cornea, the action of the intraocular pressure is supported by collagen fibrils, immersed into an elastin-proteoglycan matrix and orga...

Mentoring and Education: A Lifetime of Experience and Learning.

As recipient of the 2018 Robert M. Nerem Education and Mentorship Medal from the ASME, I was asked to prepare an article to contribute my reflections on these topics, that arise whenever we offer advice and guidance to our younger colleagues. This represents my personal views on Bob Nerem, after whom the award is named, my experiences that have impacted me as a mentor, and some words of advice, offered cautiously and with qualifications, with regard to best practices in mentoring.

Improving Engagement with Biomechanics: Student Perspectives and A Professional Development Initiative.

Student engagement is an essential aspect of educational environments, and this is especially true for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines, where student engagement declines in middle and high school years. Techniques for bolstering student engagement, such as hands-on learning, may be especially effective in the field of biomechanics since this discipline is rooted in STEM and has fundamental applications to everyday movement. To this end, this paper describes 1) the percep...

A Normative Database of Hip and Knee Joint Biomechanics during Dynamic Tasks using Four Functional Prediction Methods and Three Functional Calibrations.

Although predicted hip joint center (HJC) locations are known to vary widely between functional methods, no previous investigation has detailed functional method dependent hip and knee biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to define a normative database of hip joint biomechanics during dynamic movements based upon functional HJC methods and calibration tasks. Thirty healthy young adults performed Arc, Star Arc, and Two Sided calibration tasks. Motion capture and ground reaction forces were collected d...

A Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach for Personalized Stroke Risk Assessment in Atrial Fibrillation.

Atrial fibrillation increases the risk of cerebrovascular events, being responsible of 15-18% of all strokes. The morphological and functional remodelling of the left atrium caused by atrial fibrillation favours blood stasis and, consequently, stroke risk. Several studies suggest that haemodynamic information on the left atrium and the left atrial appendage may help to better characterize stroke risk. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized computational fluid dynamics model of the left atrium w...

In Situ Joint Stiffness Increases During Skeletal Growth but Decreases Following Partial and Complete Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

Partial and complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur in both pediatric and adult populations and can result in loss of joint stability and function. The sigmoidal shape of knee joint function (load-translation curve) under applied loads, includes a low-load region (described by slack length) followed by a high-load region (described by stiffness). However, the impact of age and injury on these parameters is not fully understood. The current objective was to measure the effects of age and inj...

A Dynamic Escape Problem of Molecular Motors.

Animal skeletal muscle exhibits very interesting behavior at near-stall forces (when the muscle is loaded so strongly that it can barely contract). Near this physical limit, the actin-myosin cross bridges do more work than their energy releasing molecules, Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP) suggest they can. It has been shown that the advantageous utilization of thermal agitation is a likely source for this increased capacity. Here, we propose a spatially two-dimensional mechanical model to illustrate how thermal...


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