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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of breath research RSS

09:47 EDT 27th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 67 from Journal of breath research

Exhaled carbon monoxide levels in obstructive sleep apnoea.

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterised by chronic intermittent hypoxia, which enhances airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO), a marker for oxidative stress, has been investigated in OSA. However, previous studies could be biased as they did not differentiate patients with OSA based on smoking history, a known factor influencing eCO levels. The aim of this study to investigate eCO levels in patients with OSA and non-OSA controls and compare evening to morning result...

Potential for breath test diagnosis of urease positive pathogens in lung infections.

Roles for urease in virulence are accepted for Helicobacter pylori and urinary tract pathogens. However, urease is widely expressed by bacterial and fungal lung pathogens causing emerging and opportunistic lung infections, organisms causing acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, mycobacterial lung diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) and health care associated pneumonia (HAP). Detection of urease provides a method for rapid in vivo detection of these lung pathoge...

The brain's resonance of breathing - decelerated breathing synchronizes heart rate and slow cortical potentials.

Numerous methods for enhancing consciousness and well-being emphasize the role of breathing. We have for the first time investigated the link between body rhythms and slow cortical brain dynamics during paced breathing. Physiological data from 37 participants are presented, who conducted paced breathing sessions with respiration rates (RR) from 6 to 14 seconds/cycle for 7 min each task. Measures of respiration, heart rate variability (HRV), and 64 channels EEG as well as subjective ratings were recorded and...

Contemporary human breath related topics: aerosols, saliva, and HR-MS bioinformatics from Pittcon 2019.

The 2019 Pittcon was held at the Philadelphia Convention Center with approximately 12,500 attendees from 80 countries, 155 technical sessions, an aggregate of 80 additional poster, networking and workshop sessions, and 750 corporate exhibitors on the exposition floor. Pittcon 2019 featured two main sessions directly related to breath diagnostics research. These were a symposium entitled "Human Exhaled Breath Aerosol (EBA) Sampling and Analysis: Applications for Clinical Diagnostics and Environmental Exposur...

Bioinspired nano-engineered strip for semi-quantitative FeNO analysis.

A point-of-care, non-invasive, low-cost and sensitive nano-biodiagnostic is a need of today's age for rapid and accurate self-diagnosis as well as management of asthma, which is advantageous for low resource areas where asthma is prevalent. The objective of this research work was to prepare the miniature, nanosponges coated paper strip to detect the asthma using certain biomarker present in exhaled air. The asthma biomarker, nitric oxide present in exhaled air (FeNO) was chosen, which on reaction with nanos...

Modeling cellular metabolomic effects of oxidative stress impacts from hydrogen peroxide and cigarette smoke on human lung epithelial cells.

The respiratory system is continuously exposed to variety of biological and chemical irritants that contain reactive oxygen species, and these are well known to cause oxidative stress responses in lung epithelial cells. There is a clinical need to identify biomarkers of oxidative stress which could potentially support early indicators of disease and health management. To identify volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress, we analyzed the headspace above human bronchial epithelial cell cultures (HBE1) before a...

Oral probiotics reduce halitosis in patients wearing orthodontic braces: A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Orthodontic braces can impede oral hygiene and promote halitosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 on oral hygiene indices and halitosis in patients wearing orthodontic braces. The study was a prospective, randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment were randomly allocated to a probiotic group (n=32) and a placebo group (n=32). Patients consumed two lozenges per day for one month. Ass...

cfDNA in Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) and contamination by ambient air: toward volatile biopsies.

Exhaled breath is a source of volatile and nonvolatile biomarkers in the body that can be accessed non-invasively and used for monitoring. The collection of lung secretions by conventional methods such as bronchoalveolar lavage, induced sputum collection, and core biopsies is limited by the invasive nature of these methods. Non-invasive collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides fluid samples that are representative of airway lining fluids. Various volatile and nonvolatile biomarkers can be dete...

Targeted breath analysis: exogenous volatile organic compounds (EVOC) as metabolic pathway-specific probes.

Breath research has almost invariably focussed on the identification of endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as disease biomarkers. After five decades, a very limited number of breath tests measuring endogenous VOCs is applied to the clinic. In this perspective article, we explore some of the factors that may have contributed to the current lack of clinical applications of breath endogenous VOCs. We discuss potential pitfalls of experimental design, analytical challenges, as well as considerations r...

Repeatability of exhaled breath fingerprint collected by a modern sampling system in asthmatic and healthy children.

E-noses provide potential non-invasive metabolic biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring pulmonary diseases. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the within-day and between-day repeatability of a modern breath sampling system (Pneumopipe® plus an array of e-nose sensors) in asthmatic and healthy children. The secondary aim was to compare the repeatability of the breath sampling system, spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). Fifteen children (age 6-11 years) with asthma and thirty he...

Effect of H2O2 induced oxidative stress (OS) on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and intracellular metabolism in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Oxidative stress (OS) refers to the process of oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) accumulated by the organisms or cells during the process of generating and scavenging oxygen free radicals. In this study, an OS model of MCF-7 cells was constructed through H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-treatment, which for the first time combined volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and intracellular metabolic analysis for a comprehensive and in-dept...

The role of measuring exhaled breath biomarkers in sarcoidosis: A systematic review.

Introduction: Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology with a variable clinical course and prognosis. There is a growing need to identify non-invasive biomarkers to differentiate between clinical phenotypes, identify those at risk of disease progression and monitor response to treatment. Objectives: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis, to evaluate the utility of breath-based biomarkers in discriminating sarcoidosis from healthy controls, alongside correl...

Basic characteristics and clinical value of FeNO in smoking asthmatics - a systematic review.

Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) reflects eosinophilic airway inflammation and it can be used to diagnose and phenotype asthma and predict treatment responses. However, smoking decreases FeNO and it is not clear if FeNO has clinical value in smoking subjects with asthma. We conducted a systematic review focusing on four basic characteristics and five clinical questions on using FeNO in smokers with asthma. At least two authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed quality of the...

The potential of breath analysis to improve outcome for patients with lung cancer.

Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer related death in both the UK and USA. Development of diagnostic approaches that have the ability to detect lung cancer early are a research priority with potential to improve survival. Analysis of exhaled breath metabolites, or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an area of considerable interest as it could fulfil such requirements. Numerous studies have shown that VOC profiles are different in the breath of patients with lung cancer compared to healthy i...

Non-contact breath sampling for sensor-based breath analysis.

Breath analysis holds great promise for real-time and non-invasive medical diagnosis. Thus, there is a considerable need for simple-in-use and portable analyzers for rapid detection of breath indicators for different diseases in their early stages. Sensor technology meets all of these demands. However, miniaturized breath analyzers require adequate breath sampling methods. In this context, we propose non-contact sampling; namely the collection of breath samples by exhalation from a distance into a miniaturi...

A comparison of exhaled breath online and offline measurements for diabetes pre-screening by graphene-based sensor: from powder processing to clinical monitoring prototype.

Several breath analysis studies have suggested a correlation between blood glucose (BG) levels and breath acetone, indicating acetone as a primary biomarker in exhaled breath for diabetes diagnosis. Herein, we have (i) fabricated and validated graphene based chemi-resistive sensors for selective and sensitive detection of acetone, (ii) performed offline breath analysis by static gas sensing setup to acquire olfactory signal and (iii) developed an LED based portable on/off binary e-nose system for pre-screen...

A review of exhaled breath key role in lung cancer diagnosis.

One of the main causes of the high mortality rate in lung cancer is the late-stage tumor detection. Early diagnosis is therefore essential to increase the chances of obtaining an effective treatment quickly thus increasing the survival rate. Current screening techniques are based on imaging, with low dose computed tomography (LDCT) as the pivotal approach. Even if LDCT has high accuracy, its invasiveness and high false positive rate limit its application to high risk population screening. A non-invasive, co...

Pores of Kohn: Forgotten alveolar structures and potential source of aerosols in exhaled breath.

Analysis of human and animal exhaled breath has identified numerous compounds including proteins and surfactant constituents from the deep lung. Some mechanisms such as coughing, breaking of surfactant/mucus plugs, or "bronchiole film bursting" have been proposed to explain the presence of these proteins from the deep lung but do not include possible contributions from Pores of Kohn. A re-examination of the change in diameter as well as forces exerted by surfactant film in the Pores of Kohn during normal in...

Evaluation of multiple-flows exhaled nitric oxide in idiopathic and non-idiopathic interstitial lung disease.

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive and reproducible marker of nitrosative stress and lung inflammation. More recently, FeNO has been proposed as a marker of severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the role of FeNO in the diagnostic pathway of ILDs. METHODS: According to ERS guidelines for exhaled biomarkers in lung diseases, FeNO at multiple flow-rates (50-100-150 and 350 ml/s) and alveolar concent...

Comparison of three different exhaled nitric oxide analyzers in chronic respiratory disorders.

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement is a simple and non-invasive method for monitoring eosinophilic airway inflammation. New portable analyzers for FeNO measurements have been developed. The aim of our study was to evaluate the agreement of FeNO measured by new portable analyzers. Materials and methods: FeNO was measured in 20 healthy subjects, 20 asthmatic and 20 chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases patients by using the analyzers NIOX VERO, Vivatmo pro and HypAir FeNO. Linear relatio...

Distinguishing iron deficiency anemia from thalassemia by the red blood cell lifespan with a simple CO breath test: A pilot study.

Extant indices for distinguishing between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia (Thal) have substantial practical limitations. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the predictive value of red blood cell lifespan (RBCLS), as determined by an automated CO breath test analysis approach, in the differential diagnosis of these two common forms of microcytic hypochromic anemia (MHA). Methods: RBCLS measurements were conducted in 35 healthy controls (HCs) and 114 patients diagnosed with MHA (IDA, ...

Halitosis: prevalence and association with oral etiological factors in children and adolescents.

Halitosis is a condition that can have negative social impacts. Although common, its prevalence and associated etiological factors have been studied little in the child/adolescent population. The aim of the present study was to associate the occurrence of halitosis with oral etiological factors in children aged six to 12 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 150 male and female children and adolescents. The organoleptic test was used to determine halitosis. All patients and caregivers answered a...

Electronic-nose: A non-invasive technology for breath analysis of diabetes and lung cancer patients.

In human-exhaled breath, more than 3000 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found which are directly or indirectly related to internal biochemical processes in the body. Electronic noses (E-noses) could play a potential role in screening/analyzing various respiratory and systemic diseases by studying breath signatures. E-nose integrates sensor array and an artificial neural network that responds to specific patterns of VOCs and thus can act as a non-invasive technology for disease monitoring. Gold standar...

Fitting of single-exhalation profiles using a pulmonary gas exchange model - application to carbon monoxide.

Real-time breath gas analysis coupled to gas exchange modeling is emerging as promising strategy to enhance the information gained from breath tests. It is shown for exhaled breath carbon monoxide (eCO), a potential biomarker for oxidative stress and respiratory diseases, that a weighted, nonlinear least-squares fit of simulated to measured expirograms can be used to extract physiological parameters, such as airway and alveolar concentrations and diffusing capacities. Experimental CO exhalation profiles are...

Diagnosing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome using an electronic nose, a pilot study.

Objective Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a complication after surgery or trauma and is characterized by a continuing regional pain in a distal extremity. The pain is disproportionate in severity and duration in relation to the preceding trauma. Currently, the diagnosis is based on the patients' signs and symptoms. There is no objective clinically applicable test available to confirm the diagnoses of CRPS, however this could contribute to a more reliable and valid diagnosis. ...


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