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The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Hepatic insulin resistance and liver lipid accumulation contributed to T2D development. The aim of this work was to investigate the key gene pathways and co-expression networks in T2D liver.
An elevated heart rate has been reported to be associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated whether heart rate was independently and interactively with body mass index (BMI) or blood pressure (BP), associated with the incidence of T2DM in a rural Chinese population.
To investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of Chinese patients with a phenotype consistent with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2) and explore the pathogenic mechanism of their hyperglycemia.
Insulin-like growth factor-I regulates mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, inflammation, stellate cells, and insulin sensitivity in the liver, and it might be associated with liver fibrosis from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). On the other hand, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is closely associated with the progression from non-alcoholic fatty liver to NASH and cirrhosis, so careful evaluation of liver fibrosis is required in patients with T2DM. Therefore, we examined the relationship between in...
Hyperglycemia impairs energy substrate oxidation as a result of glucotoxicity. We examined whether reduction of plasma glucose using a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in inpatient diabetes management, has any effect on 1) treatment period and basal/bolus dosage of insulin that achieve euglycemia, 2) fasting/postprandial energy expenditure (EE), and 3) energy substrate oxidation.
Autoantibodies to the 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) are a valuable diagnostic and predictive marker for type 1 diabetes. Recently, it has been reported that a significant proportion of sera in commercial RSR-radioimmunoassay (RIA) that have tested positive for GADA have then turned negative in RSR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests in patients with type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate whether the GADA result discrepancies between RSR-RIA and RSR-ELISA is relate...
The putative tumor suppressor gene KBTBD11 may play a role in tumorigenesis and is associated with cellular apoptosis and proliferation in colorectal cancer cells. However, the function of Kbtbd11 during adipogenesis is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Kbtbd11 in the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
Cardio-renal protective effect of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is well established by three large clinical trials; Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcome Events Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study (CANVAS), and most recently Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events Trial 58 by the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Study Group (DECLARE-TIMI 58). Three different SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapa...
Whole-exome sequencing is a new technology. We used it to explore the gene responsible for early-onset diabetes due to impaired insulin secretion in a family. In the INS gene, we identified the heterozygous c.188-31G>A mutation in the proband. The mutation was also identified in her two daughters with diabetes, but not in her son or her parents, all of whom were not diabetic. The substitution was located 31 bp proximal to exon three in the intron two. It was predicted to create an ectopic splice site leadin...
In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin added to standard of care improved clinically relevant kidney outcomes by 39%, slowed progression of chronic kidney disease, and reduced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease. This exploratory analysis investigated kidney effects of empagliflozin in Asian patients.
DOC2b (double C2 domain protein b), one of the synaptotagmins, has been shown to translocate to the plasma membrane, and to initiate membrane-fusion processes of vesicles containing glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) proteins upon insulin stimulation. However, the mechanism by which DOC2b is regulated remains unclear. Herein, we identified the upstream regulatory factors of DOC2b in insulin signal transduction. We also examined the role of DOC2b on systemic homeostasis using DOC2b knockout (KO) mice.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which occurs in association with insulin resistance and hepatic fat accumulation, is characterized by chronic liver injury and fibrosis. NASH onset and progression is closely related to hepatic inflammation, which is partly regulated by the vagus nerve through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR). Hepatic α7nAchR action is impeded in obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, using α7nAchR knockout (α7KO) mice, we elucidated the effect of α7nAchR d...
Until date, diabetes treatment has focused on the prevention of chronic complications due to microangiopathy and cardiovascular events as well as acute complications with diabetic ketoacidosis and diabetic hyperosmolar hyperglycemic coma. Recently, the prevention of sarcopenia, a dysnutrition state accompanying aging or obesity in patients with diabetes, has become a new target of diabetes treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The number of diabetic patients in the world is reported to have been over 400 million and the explosive increase has become global issue. The purpose of diabetes treatment is to prevent and suppress the progress of diabetic complications by improving the glucose tolerance. However, ultimate goal of diabetes treatment shoots for maintaining diabetic patients' quality of life that is equivalent to healthy people and prolonging their life expectancy as much as possible. This article is protected by copyright....
This study aimed to describe hospital utilization and examine actual medical costs for severe hypoglycemic events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japan.
Mutations of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) gene give rise to maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 1 (MODY1). Although many such mutations have been identified in affected individuals, part of these mutations have been characterized with regard to their pathological relevance. We here identified a missense mutation (c.773G>A, p.R258H) of HNF4A in a mother and daughter with early-onset diabetes and impaired insulin secretion. In silico simulation and in vitro luciferase reporter analyses ind...
The prevalence of pre-diabetes has been epidemic globally and pre-diabetes is often accompanied with metabolic syndrome (MS). But the association between MS and cardiovascular (CV) risk among pre-diabetic individuals in China remains unknown.
We aimed to investigate whether there are differences in the risk factors or markers for the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Diabetic foot ulceration has been a serious issue over the past decades in Asia, causing economic and social problems. Therefore, it is important to identify and reduce risk factors of diabetic foot. Cigarette smoking has been reported to be associated with diabetes and its macrovascular complications, but the relationship between smoking and diabetic foot ulcers is still unclear. In this review, we summarizes the effects of cigarette smoking on diabetic foot ulcers with respect to peripheral neuropathy, va...
The preservation of pancreatic β-cell mass is an essential factor in the onset and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors have been launched as anti-hyperglycemic agents, and their organ-protective effects are attracting attention. They are also reported to have favorable effects on the preservation of pancreatic β-cell mass, but the appropriate timing for the administration of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors is obscure.
To examine the association between adult-onset diabetes and life-course body weight changes.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been increasing worldwide and are considered to be related to physical inactivity and dysregulated eating behavior. Although environmental factors are important in the progression of obesity, the contribution of adipose tissue dysfunction and related genetic factors have been less clear. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal failure in Japan. Clarification of its detailed pathogenesis and development of therapeutic methods are urgent issues. In this article in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Pan et al. showed a usefulness of weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and identified a potentially important candidate molecules that regulate diabetic nephropathy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery has been reported to relieve diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) effectively. However, the specific mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study was designed to determine the alterations of myocardial glucose uptake (MGU) after DJB and their effects on DCM.