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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of morphology RSS

18:12 EDT 24th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 94 from Journal of morphology

Locomotor correlates of the scapholunar of living and extinct carnivorans.

The relationship of carpal morphology to ecology and habitat is under studied in carnivorans and more generally in mammals. Here, we use 3D-scanning techniques to assess the usefulness of a carpal bone, the scapholunar, in carnivorans to reflect ecology and habitat, and to reconstruct the ecology of five extinct carnivorans from two fossil sites: Rancho La Brea and Natural Trap Cave. We 3D-scanned scapholunars and measured articular surface areas and angles between articular facets using GeoMagic and Rhino ...

Embryonic and larval development of the northern pike: An emerging fish model system for evo-devo research.

The northern pike, Esox lucius, is one of the largest temperate freshwater apex predators with a characteristic morphology: an elongated body with pelvic, dorsal, and anal fins located at the rear as a functional feature to sprint predation. However, the typical pike character is its head, which is characterized by a long, flattened snout, a well-armed mouth with numerous teeth, and large eyes characteristic of shallow water visual predators. Although the northern pike is becoming increasingly popular as a ...

Superficial, suprahyoid, and infrahyoid neck musculature in naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber): Relative size and potential contributions to independent movement of the lower incisors.

Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are fossorial, eusocial rodents that exhibit the unusual capability of moving their lower incisors independently in lateral and rostroventral directions. The evolution of this trait would presumably also involve concurrent alterations in neck musculature to support and control movements of the lower incisors. In order to assess morphological adaptations that might facilitate these movements, we performed detailed dissections of the neck musculature of adult naked mole...

Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the distribution of spermatozoal nuclear histones in the Japanese mantis shrimp, Oratosquilla oratoria (Crustacea: Stomatopoda).

The Japanese mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria (Stomatopoda; Crustacea) is one of the most economically important aquatic species of Pacific shrimp and it is distributed from Japan to the coast of China, the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and the Hawaiian Islands. Early studies described certain characteristics of spermatogenesis and the sperm ultrastructure in Stomatopoda, but the composition of sperm basic nuclear proteins (SBNPs) remains completely unknown. We studied the sperm ultrastructure of O. ...

A comparative morphological and histological study of the gastrointestinal tract of four insectivorous bat species: Asellia tridens, Chaerephon pumilus, Nycteris thebaica, Rhinopoma hardwickii.

Various studies address the morphology of the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of insectivorous bat species. However, detailed morphometric studies including mucin histochemistry are scarce. This study compares various GIT measurements as well as the quantification of intestinal mucin secreting cells in four insectivorous bat species representing four different families of Chiroptera. Alcian blue/Periodic acid Schiff's stain was used to differentiate between acid and neutral mucin-secreting cells while the Al...

Variability, morphometrics, and co-variation of the os lacrimale in Cervidae.

In Ruminantia, the lacrimal bone forms a considerable part of the facial skeleton, and the morphology of its facial facet is highly variable when compared to other mammals. In this study, we quantify the species-specific variability in size and shape of the lacrimal facial facet in species of Cervidae (deer) and relate it to systematics and various aspects of their ecology and behavior. We sampled 143 skull specimens from 10 genera; 12 Moschus and 3 Tragulus specimens were used as outgroups. We find that si...

Convergent evolution of the lateral line system in Apogonidae (Teleostei: Percomorpha) determined from innervation.

The lateral line system and its innervation were examined in two species of the family Apogonidae (Cercamia eremia [Apogoninae] and Pseudamia gelatinosa [Pseudamiinae]). Both species were characterized by numerous superficial neuromasts (SNs; total 2,717 in C. eremia; 9,650 in P. gelatinosa), including rows on the dorsal and ventral halves of the trunk, associated with one (in C. eremia) and three (in P. gelatinosa) reduced trunk canals. The pattern of SN innervation clearly demonstrated that the overall pa...

Muscle fiber structure in an aging long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla).

Many long-lived animals do not appear to show classic signs of aging, perhaps because they show negligible senescence until dying from "catastrophic" mortality. Muscle senescence is seldom examined in wild animals, yet decline in muscle function is one of the first signs of aging in many lab animals and humans. Seabirds are an excellent study system for physiological implications of aging because they are long-lived animals that actively forage and reproduce in the wild. Here, we examined linkages between p...

The dermal skeleton of the jawless vertebrate Tremataspis mammillata (Osteostraci, stem-Gnathostomata).

Osteostracans are the closest jawless relatives of jawed vertebrates, informing the gradual assembly of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton. Conflicting interpretations of their dermal skeletal histology arise from failure to account for topological variation, obscuring their significance in elucidating vertebrate skeletal evolution. To resolve this, we characterize the cranial and trunk dermal skeleton of a single individual of Tremataspis mammillata (Osteostraci, Thyestiida) at submicron resolution using ...

Hans Bluntschli in Berne: Researching reproduction in hedgehog tenrecs (Afrosoricida, Tenrecidae).

The Swiss anatomist Hans Bluntschli is best known as a primatologist. Yet, his focus during his later years in Berne was on reproduction in Malagasy tenrecs. This research was done with two graduate students, Robert Goetz and Fritz Strauss; all three had been obliged to leave Germany after the National Socialists came to power. Unique features of reproduction in tenrecs included nonantral follicles, intrafollicular fertilization, eversion of the corpus luteum, and polyovulation. The fertilized egg formed a ...

Powering the hagfish "bite": The functional morphology of the retractor complex of two hagfish feeding apparatuses.

Hagfish use forceful retractions of a dental plate to shear and ingest food. Retractile force is generated by the retractor muscle complex of the posterior hagfish feeding apparatus (HFA). While gross morphological descriptions exist, the organization of muscle and connective tissue fibers that form the soft tissue retractor complex do not. In this study, we used paraffin histology to prepare serial sections of Pacific (Eptatretus stoutii, Lockington, 1879) and Atlantic (Myxine glutinosa, Linnaeus, 1758) ha...

Functional morphology of the mouthparts of lady beetle Coccinella transversoguttata (Coccinellidae, Coleoptera), with reference to their feeding mechanism.

The lady beetle Coccinella transversoguttata is an important biocontrol agent of aphids. As the main the feeding apparatus, mouthparts play essential roles in feeding process, and the morphological variation of mouthparts is correlated with variation in food source and feeding behavior. To better understand the feeding behavior of C. transversoguttata, we studied the functional morphology of mouthparts, with special attention to the fine morphology of each part of mouthpart and various kinds of sensilla. Th...

Sexual dimorphism in postcranial skeletal shape suggests male-biased specialization for physical competition in anthropoid primates.

Sexual dimorphism often arises as a response to selection on traits that improve a male's ability to physically compete for access to mates. In primates, sexual dimorphism in body mass and canine size is more common in species with intense male-male competition. However, in addition to these traits, other musculoskeletal adaptations may improve male fighting performance. Postcranial traits that increase strength, agility, and maneuverability may also be under selection. To test the hypothesis that males, as...

The abdomen of a free-living female of Strepsiptera and the evolution of the birth organs.

Mengenillidae is a small, basal family of Strepsiptera, mainly characterized by free-living females in contrast to the endoparasitic females of Stylopidia. Here, we describe external and internal structures of the female abdomen of Eoxenos laboulbenei (Mengenillidae). The external morphology was examined and documented using microphotography. Internal structures were reconstructed three-dimensionally using a μCT-data set. The morphologically simplified abdomen comprises 10 segments. The integument is weakl...

Do sharks exhibit heterodonty by tooth position and over ontogeny? A comparison using elliptic Fourier analysis.

Tooth morphology is often used to inform the feeding ecology of an organism as these structures are important to procure and process dietary resources. In sharks, differences in morphology may facilitate the capture and handling of prey with different physical properties. However, few studies have investigated differences in tooth morphology over ontogeny, throughout the jaws of a single species, or among species at multiple tooth positions. Bull (Carcharhinus leucas), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and ...

Comparative limb bone scaling in turtles: Phylogenetic transitions with changes in functional demands?

Several terrestrial vertebrate clades include lineages that have evolved nearly exclusive use of aquatic habitats. In many cases, such transitions are associated with the evolution of flattened limbs that are used to swim via dorsoventral flapping. Such changes in shape may have been facilitated by changes in limb bone loading in novel aquatic environments. Studies on limb bone loading in turtles found that torsion is high relative to bending loads on land, but reduced compared to bending during aquatic row...

Evolutionary implications of fetal and maternal microvillous surfaces in epitheliochorial placentae.

According to the "parent-offspring conflict hypothesis" the rapid evolution and diversification of the mammalian placenta is driven by divergent optima of resource allocation between fetus and mother. The fetus has an interest to maximize its resource intake, while the mother has an interest to restrict the transfer of resources, and thus retain resources for subsequent pregnancies. In the epitheliochorial placenta, the contacting fetal and maternal surfaces at the feto-maternal interface are covered with m...

Ultrastructure of the scolex of Orygmatobothrium schmittii (Cestoda: Phyllobothriidea).

The ultrastructure of the scolex of Orygmatobothrium schmittii (Cestoda: Phyllobothriidae) was studied using histochemistry, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The central bothridial structure resulted in a glandulomuscular organ formed by a mass of syncytial glands and radial muscles, with glycoprotein secretions potentially adhesive. Among the sensory receptors found on the scolex, a particular type was found surrounding the glandulomuscular organ, which might be related in the regulation of ...

A lambda-shaped retractor lentis muscle in the yellowfin goby Acanthogobius flavimanus.

We identified a morphologically uncommon piscine retractor lentis muscle in the yellowfin goby Acanthogobius flavimanus. This lentis muscle has a shape similar to the Greek small letter lambda (λ). The two legs of the muscle are attached to the retinal periphery at the ventral eyecup, while the tip is connected to the lens surface by a ligament. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fibers of the lentis muscle run along the length of both the anterior and posterior legs. Immunolabeling with antiacet...

Mechanical similarity across ontogeny of digging muscles in an Australian marsupial (Isoodon fusciventer).

Many mammals dig, either during foraging to access subsurface food resources, or in creating burrows for shelter. Digging requires large forces produced by muscles and transmitted to the soil via the skeletal system; thus fossorial mammals tend to have characteristic modifications of the musculoskeletal system that reflect their digging ability. Bandicoots (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) scratch-dig mainly to source food, searching for subterranean food items including invertebrates, seeds, and fungi. They have ...

Previtellogenic oocytes of South African largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides Lacépède 1802 (Actinopterygii, Perciformes) - the Balbiani body, cortical alveoli and developing eggshell.

The ovaries of the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, an alien and invasive species in South Africa, contain a germinal epithelium which consists of germline and somatic cells, as well as previtellogenic and late vitellogenic ovarian follicles. The ovarian follicle consists of an oocyte surrounded by follicular cells and a basal lamina; thecal cells adjacent to this lamina are covered by an extracellular matrix. In this article, we describe the Balbiani body and the polarization and ultrastructure of th...

Gill remodelling during terrestrial acclimation in the amphibious fish Polypterus senegalus.

Fishes are effectively weightless in water due to the buoyant support of the environment, but amphibious fishes must cope with increased effective weight when on land. Delicate structures such as gills are especially vulnerable to collapse and loss of surface area out of water. We tested the 'structural support' hypothesis that amphibious Polypterus senegalus solve this problem using phenotypically plastic changes that provide mechanical support and increase stiffness at the level of the gill lamellae, the ...

A comprehensive and user-friendly framework for 3D-data visualisation in invertebrates and other organisms.

Methods for 3D-imaging of biological samples are experiencing unprecedented development, with tools such as X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) becoming more accessible to biologists. These techniques are inherently suited to small subjects and can simultaneously image both external and internal morphology, thus offering considerable benefits for invertebrate research. However, methods for visualising 3D-data are trailing behind the development of tools for generating such data. Our aim in this article i...

Development and differentiation of the reproductive system of Tropidurus catalanensis (Squamata: Tropiduridae).

Development and differentiation of the reproductive system in lizards begin in the embryonic period, although the stage and time of their occurrence vary according to populations and species. In this study, the events of the development and differentiation of the reproductive system of males and females of Tropidurus catalanensis were characterized during the embryonic, neonatal, and juvenile periods. Embryos at Stages 27, 34, 37, 40, and 41, neonates and juveniles, from Corrientes, Argentina, were analyzed...

Pitch control and speed limitation during overground deceleration in lemurid primates.

An animal's fitness is influenced by the ability to move safely through its environment. Recent models have shown that aspects of body geometry, for example, limb length and center of mass (COM) position, appear to set limits for pitch control in cursorial quadrupeds. Models of pitch control predict that the body shape of these and certain other primates, with short forelimbs and posteriorly positioned COM, should allow them to decelerate rapidly while minimizing the risk of pitching forward. We chose to te...


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