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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of neurophysiology RSS

02:54 EDT 16th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 511 from Journal of neurophysiology

Reply to Laurens and Angelaki: A model-based reassessment of the three-dimensional tuning of head direction cells in rats.

VOLUNTARY AND TREMOROGENIC INPUTS TO MOTOR NEURON POOLS OF AGONIST/ANTAGONIST MUSCLES IN ESSENTIAL TREMOR PATIENTS.

Pathological tremor is an oscillation of body parts at 3-10 Hz, determined by the output of spinal motor neurons (MNs), which receive synaptic inputs from supraspinal centres and muscle afferents. The behaviour of spinal MNs during tremor is not well understood, especially in relation to the activation of the multiple muscles involved. Recent studies on essential tremor patients have shown that antagonist MN pools receive shared input at the tremor frequency. Here, we investigate the synaptic inputs related...

Responses of neurons in macaque MT to unikinetic plaids.

Response properties of MT neurons are often studied with "bikinetic" plaid stimuli, which consist of two superimposed sine wave gratings moving in different directions. Oculomotor studies using "unikinetic plaids" in which only one of the two superimposed gratings moves suggest that the eyes first move reflexively in the direction of the moving grating and only later converge on the perceived direction of the moving pattern. MT has been implicated as the source of visual signals that drives these responses....

Recalibration of auditory perception of speech due to orofacial somatosensory inputs during speech motor adaptation.

Speech motor control and learning rely both on somatosensory and auditory inputs. Somatosensory inputs associated with speech production can also affect the process of auditory perception of speech, and the somatosensory-auditory interaction may play a fundamental role in auditory perception of speech. Here, we show that the somatosensory system contributes to perceptual recalibration, separate from its role in motor function. Subjects participated in speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. Au...

Retention and generalizability of balance recovery response adaptations from trip-perturbations across the adult lifespan.

For human locomotion, varying environments require adjustments of the motor system. We asked whether age affects gait balance recovery adaptation, its retention over months and the transfer of adaptation to an untrained reactive balance task. Healthy adults (26 young, 27 middle-aged and 25 older; average ages 24, 52 and 72 years respectively) completed two tasks. The primary task involved treadmill walking: either unperturbed (control; =39) or subject to unexpected trip perturbations (training; =39). A sing...

Automatic encoding of a target position relative to a natural scene.

We previously showed that the brain automatically represents a target position for reaching relative to a large square in the background. In the present study, we tested whether a natural scene with many complex details serves as an effective background for representing a target. In the first experiment, we used upright and inverted pictures of a natural scene. A shift of pictures significantly attenuated prism adaptation of reaching movements as long as they were upright. In one-third of participants, adap...

Sensory enhancement amplifies interlimb cutaneous reflexes in wrist extensor muscles.

Interlimb neural connections support motor tasks such as locomotion and cross-education strength training. Somatosensory pathways that can be assessed with cutaneous reflex paradigms assist in subserving these connections. Many studies show that stimulation of cutaneous nerves elicits reflexes in muscles widespread across the body and induces neural plasticity after training. Sensory enhancement, such as long duration trains of transcutaneous stimulation, facilitates performance during rehabilitation traini...

Multimodal Stimuli Modulate Rapid Visual Responses during Reaching.

The reticulospinal tract plays an important role in primate upper limb function, but methods for assessing its activity are limited. One promising approach is to measure rapid visual responses (RVRs) in arm muscle activity during a visually-cued reaching task; these may arise from a tecto-reticulospinal pathway. We investigated whether changes in reticulospinal excitability can be assessed non-invasively using RVRs, by pairing the visual stimuli of the reaching task with electrical stimulation of the median...

Differential contribution of pyramidal cells and interneurons to activity-dependent gene transcription changes.

The type of neuronal activity determines the outcome of gene expression. Hence, the characterization of underlying mechanisms in transcriptome alterations may serve as a biomarker and provide new intervention methods for the treatment of pathologic conditions. Parrish ., (https://www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/jn.00287.2018) show that the changes in interneuronal gene transcription are correlated with the type of the activated neuronal population, and, the initiation route of Ras/ERK MAPK pathway deter...

Long-Term Facilitation of Catecholamine Secretion from Adrenal Chromaffin Cells of Neonatal Rats by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia.

In neonates, catecholamine (CA) secretion from adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AMC) is an important mechanism for maintaining homeostasis during hypoxia. Nearly 90% of premature infants experience chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) because of high incidence of apnea of prematurity, which is characterized by periodic stoppage of breathing. The present study examined the effects of repetitive hypoxia, designed to mimic apnea of prematurity, on CA release from AMC of neonatal rats. Neonatal rats were expose...

NanoTouch: Intracellular Recording Using Transmembrane Conductive Nanoparticles.

Observations of the electrophysiological properties of cells are important for understanding cellular functions and their underlying mechanisms. Short action potentials in axons are essential to rapidly deliver signals from the neuronal cell body to the terminals, whereas longer action potentials are required for sufficient calcium influx for transmitter release at the synaptic terminals, and for cardiomyocyte and smooth muscle contractions. To accurately observe the shape and timing of depolarizations, it ...

Electrical microstimulation evokes saccades in posterior parietal cortex of common marmosets.

The common marmoset () is a small-bodied New World primate, increasing in prominence as a model animal for neuroscience research. The lissencephalic cortex of this primate species provides substantial advantages for the application of electrophysiological techniques such as high-density and laminar recordings, which have the capacity to advance our understanding of local and laminar cortical circuits and their roles in cognitive and motor functions. This is particularly the case with respect to the oculomot...

Large gaze shift generation whilst standing up - the role of the vestibular system.

The functional significance of vestibular information for the generation of gaze shifts is controversial and less well established than the vestibular contribution to gaze stability. Here, we asked seven bilaterally avestibular patients to execute voluntary, whole-body pivot turns to visual targets up to 180° whilst standing. In these conditions not only the demands imposed on gaze transfer mechanisms are more challenging but also neck-proprioceptive input represents an inadequate source of head-in-space m...

Dissociating effects of error size, training duration, and amount of adaptation on the ability to retain motor memories.

Extensive computational and neurobiological work has focused on how the training schedule, i.e. the duration and rate at which an environmental disturbance is presented, shapes the formation of motor memories. If long-lasting benefits are to be derived from motor training, however, retention of the performance improvements gained during practice is essential. Thus, a better understanding of mechanisms that promote retention could lead to the design of more effective training procedures. The few studies that...

Changes in Motoneuron Excitability during Voluntary Muscle Activity in Humans with Spinal Cord Injury.

The excitability of resting motoneurons increases following spinal cord injury (SCI). The extent to which motoneuron excitability changes during voluntary muscle activity in humans with SCI, however, remains poorly understood. To address this question, we measured F-waves by using supramaximal electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist and cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs) by using high current electrical stimulation over the cervicomedullary junction in the first dorsal interosse...

Tactile angle discriminability improvement: roles of training time intervals and different types of training tasks.

Perceptual learning, which is not limited to sensory modalities such as vision and touch, emerges within a training session and between training sessions and is accompanied by the remodeling of neural connections in the cortex. However, limited knowledge exists regarding perceptual learning between training sessions. Although tactile studies have paid attention to between-session learning effects, there have been few studies asking fundamental questions regarding whether the time interval between training s...

Highlights from the 29th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Neural Control of Movement.

Loose Coupling Between SK and P/Q-type Ca Channels in Cartwheel Cells of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus.

Small-conductance Ca-activated K (SK) and large conductance, voltage- and Ca-activated K (BK) channels are Ca-activated K channels that control action potential firing diverse neurons in the brain. In cartwheel cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, blockade of either channel type leads to excessive production of spike bursts. In the same cells, P/Q-type Ca channels in plasma membrane and ryanodine receptors in endoplasmic reticulum supply Ca to BK channels through Ca nanodomain signaling. In this study, vol...

The Impact of Task-specific Training on Saccadic Eye Movement Performance.

Prosaccades are saccadic eye movements made reflexively in response to the sudden appearance of visual stimuli while antisaccades are saccades that are directed to a location opposite a stimulus. Bibi and Edelman (2009) demonstrated that decreases in reaction time resulting from training prosaccades along one spatial axis (horizontal or vertical) could transfer to prosaccades made along the other axis. To help determine whether visual or motor-related processes underlie this facilitation, in the present stu...

Investigating stimulation parameters for preferential small fiber activation using exponentially rising electrical currents.

Electrical stimulation is widely used in pain research and profiling but current technologies lack selectivity towards small sensory fibers. Pin electrodes deliver high current density in upper skin layers and it has been proposed that slowly rising exponential pulses can elevate large fiber activation threshold and thereby increase preferential small fiber activation. Optimal stimulation parameters for the combined pin electrode and exponential pulse stimulation have so far not been established as is the a...

High-definition tDCS to the right temporoparietal junction modulates slow-wave resting state power and coherence in healthy adults.

The right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) is a multisensory integration hub that is increasingly utilised as a target of stimulation studies exploring its rich functional network roles and potential clinical applications. Whilst transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is frequently employed in such studies, there is still relatively little known regarding its local and network neurophysiological effects, particularly at important non-motor sites such as the rTPJ. The current study applied either anod...

The role of paroxysmal depolarization in focal seizure activity.

We analyze the role of inhibition in sustaining focal epileptic seizure activity. We review ongoing seizure activity at the mesoscopic scale that can be observed with microelectrode arrays, as well as at the macroscale of standard clinical EEG. We provide clinical, experimental, and modeling data to support the hypothesis that paroxysmal depolarization (PD) is a critical component of the ictal machinery. We present dual patch recordings in cortical cultures showing reduced synaptic transmission associated w...

Visual responses in the dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (dLGN) at early stages of retinal degeneration in PDE6β mice.

Inherited retinal degenerations encompass a wide range of diseases that result in the death of rod and cone photoreceptors eventually leading to irreversible blindness. Low vision survives at early stages of degeneration, at which point it could rely on residual populations of rod/cone photoreceptors as well as the inner retinal photoreceptor, melanopsin. To date, the impact of partial retinal degeneration on visual responses in the primary visual thalamus (dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; dLGN) remains u...

Neural coding and perception of auditory motion direction based on interaural time differences.

While motion is important for parsing a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects, how it is encoded in the auditory system is unclear. Perceptual studies suggest that the ability to identify the direction of motion is limited by the duration of the moving sound, yet we can detect changes in interaural differences at even shorter durations. To understand the source of these distinct temporal limits, we recorded from single units in the inferior colliculus of unanesthetized rabbits in response to noise ...

Spatial organization of activity evoked by focal stimulation within the rat spinal dorsal horn as visualized by voltage-sensitive-dye imaging in the slice.

In a prior study using laser scanning photostimulation, we found a pronounced cell-type-specific mediolateral asymmetry in the local synaptic connectivity in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn (Kosugi et al. 2013). In order to obtain information on dorsal horn organization that might complement findings from microelectrode studies, voltage-sensitive-dye (VSD) imaging was used in the present study to examine patterns of activity evoked by focal electrical stimulation, in the presence and absen...


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