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Chemical imaging of the human brain has great potential for diagnostic and monitoring purposes. The heterogeneity of human brain iron distribution, and alterations to this distribution in Alzheimer's disease, indicate iron as a potential endogenous marker. The influence of iron on certain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters increases with magnetic field, but is under-explored in human brain tissues above 7 T.
Currently, assessment of unmyelinated axon regeneration is limited to electron microscopy (EM), which is expensive, time consuming and not universally available. This study presents a protocol to estimate the number of unmyelinated axons in a regenerating peripheral nerve without the need for electron microscopy.
The choice of appropriate reference genes (RGs) for use in reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been thoroughly investigated, since the inclusion of unstable RGs might cause inaccurate gene expression results.
Physiological studies of sensorial systems often require the acquisition and processing of data extracted from their multiple components to evaluate how the neural information changes in relation to the environment changes. In this work, a comparative study about methodological aspects of two electrophysiological approaches is described.
The growing use of neuromodulation techniques to treat neurological disorders has motivated efforts to improve on the safety and reliability of implantable nerve stimulators.
In behavioral neuroscience studies, it is essential to accurately and easily record rodent sexual behavior. However, current systems are complex, expensive and often require a computer that hinders their use in situ.
It has been found that specific regions in the brain are dedicated to specific functions. Detection and analysis of the constituent functional networks of the brain is of great importance for understanding the brain functionality and diagnosing some neuropsychiatric illnesses. In this paper, we introduce Non-negative Tensor Factorization (NTF) methods to identify the overlapping communities in brain networks using resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) data. Instead of taking average ...
In the context of morbid obesity, vagus nerve stimulation could be used to control gastric function targeting the small afferent B-fibers and C-fibers. Compared to large A-fibers, activation thresholds of these small efferent fibers are 10 to 100 times greater, inducing technical constraints and possible nerve damages. Although rectangular waveform is commonly used in nerve stimulation, recent modeling and experimental studies suggest that non-rectangular waveforms could reduced the charge injected by the s...
Partial directed coherence (PDC) computed from multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) model coefficient is increasingly being used to study directed functional connectivity between brain regions in the frequency domain based on electroencephalography (EEG) source signals. However, directly fitting MVAR model to the high-dimensional source signals is difficult. Besides, although PDC measurement often shows good results for simulated data, it is not clear to what extent the results for real data are physiological...
Assessing markers of neural activity in rodent behavioural tasks benefits from meaningful comparison with matched control conditions. The Morris water maze is a widely used learning and memory task, but currently implemented control conditions are not optimal.
Modern techniques for multi-neuronal recording produce large amounts of data. There is no automatic procedure for the identification of states in recurrent voltage patterns.
Current methods for murine brain microvasculature isolation requires the pooling of brain cortices while disregarding the rest of the CNS, making the analysis of single individuals non feasible.
The interaction of different brain regions is supported by transient synchronization between neural oscillations at different frequencies. Different measures based on synchronization theory are used to assess the strength of the interactions from experimental data. One method of estimating the effective connectivity between brain regions, within the framework of the theory of weakly coupled phase oscillators, was implemented in Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) for phase coupling (Penny et al., 2009). However,...
Parkinsonian rigidity is identified on clinical examination as resistance to passive movement. Measurement of rigidity commonly relies on ordinal rating scales (MDS-UPDRS), however instrumented objective measures may provide greater mechanistic insight.
Challenges specific to the discovery and development of candidate CNS drugs have led to implementation of various in silico, in vitro and in vivo approaches to improve the odds for commercialization of novel treatments.
The perfused working heart brainstem preparation of rodents has become a widely used tool to study brainstem function. Here, we adapt this experimental technique for newborn guinea pigs (postnatal day 7-14) to develop a tool that enables investigation of airway defense mechanisms not observed in other rodents. The perfused guinea pig brainstem preparation generates a stable eupnea-like motor pattern recorded from the phrenic, recurrent laryngeal and intercostal nerves and basic cardio-respiratory reflexes, ...
The classification of sleep signals is a subjective and time consuming task. A large number of automatic classifiers have been published in the past decade but a sleep community has no strong confidence to use them in clinical practice and still remains using a standard manual scoring according standardized rules.
Intrathecal (IT) delivery is useful in both basic research and clinical treatments. Here we aim to test a new minimally invasive distribution route to the subarachnoid space (SAS) and the flow of IT administrations. We placed a radioligand into SAS during positron emission tomography (PET) scanning as a proof of concept.
Tactile stimulations systems are useful for studying the somatosensory system in children because they are innocuous and safe. Stimulators based on piezoelectric actuator are useful, but there is still a need for such systems capable of providing accurate and versatile control of timing and pattern of activation.
Neuroscience research using macaques remains fundamental in our endeavours to understand how the human brain functions. Applying the refinement principle of the 3Rs is essential to optimise the monkeys' welfare and still produces high quality science.
As the medical images contain both superficial and imperceptible patterns, textures are successfully used as discriminant features for the detection of cancers, tumors, etc. NEW METHOD: Our algorithm selects the specific image blocks and computes the textures using the following steps: At first, the center image slice of the axes (sagittal, coronal and axial) is divided into small blocks and those which approximately resembles the regions of interest are marked. Then, all the marked blocks which are in the ...
Translational studies investigating the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on brain function up to now mainly relied on BOLD responses measured with fMRI. However, fMRI studies in rodents face technical and practical limitations (e.g., immobilization, sedation or anesthesia, spatial and temporal resolution of data). Direct measurement of oxygen concentration in the brain using electrochemical sensors is a promising alternative to the use of fMRI. Here, we tested for the first time if such measurements ...
This paper presents a method for isolating time-dependent event-related potential (ERP) components which are superimposed on the gross ERP waveform. The experimental data that inspired this approach was recorded from the auditory cortex of conscious laboratory mice in response to presentation of ten different duration pure-tone auditory stimuli.
Birds comprise the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates. This success likely is related to the evolution of powered flight over 75mya. Modern approaches for studying brain function, however, have yet to be fully adapted and applied to birds, especially as they relate to specific behaviors including flight.
Sleep spindles are involved in memory consolidation and other cognitive functions. Numerous automated methods for detection of spindles have been proposed; most of these rely on spectral analysis in some form. However, none of these approaches are ideal, and novel approaches to the problem could provide additional insights.