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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN RSS

04:38 EST 21st November 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 87 from Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN

Lateral orbitofrontal dysfunction in the Sapap3 knockout mouse model of obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder that affects about 2% of the population, but the underlying neuropathophysiology of OCD is not well understood. Although increasing lines of evidence implicate dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in OCD, a detailed understanding of the functional alterations in different neuronal types in the OFC is still elusive.

Performance monitoring and post-error adjustments in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an EEG analysis

Recently, research into attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused increasingly on its neurobiological underpinnings, revealing (among other things) frontal lobe alterations. Specifically, action-monitoring deficits have been described, including impaired behavioural adjustments following errors. Our aim was to examine the neurophysiological background of post-error behavioural alterations in an adult ADHD sample for the first time, hypothesizing that people with ADHD would differ from cont...

Affect, interpersonal behaviour and interpersonal perception during open-label, uncontrolled paroxetine treatment of people with social anxiety disorder: a pilot study

Laboratory-based research with community samples has suggested changes in affective, behavioural and cognitive processes as possible explanations for the effects of serotonergic medications. Examining the effects of serotonergic medications using an ecological momentary measure (such as event-contingent recording) in the daily lives of people with social anxiety disorder would contribute to establishing the effects of these medications on affect, behaviour and one form of cognition: perception of others’ ...

Psychoradiological patterns of small-world properties and a systematic review of connectome studies of patients with 6 major psychiatric disorders

Brain connectome research based on graph theoretical analysis shows that small-world topological properties play an important role in the structural and functional alterations observed in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, the reported global topological alterations in small-world properties are controversial, are not consistently conceptualized according to agreed-upon criteria, and are not critically examined for consistent alterations in patients with each major psychiatric disorder.

Peter M. Milner, 1919–2018

Tic-related obsessive–compulsive disorder

Low white-matter integrity between the left thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus in patients with insomnia disorder

Previous studies have reported functional and structural abnormalities in the thalamus and the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus in patients with insomnia disorder. However, no studies have been conducted on the white-matter tracts between these 2 brain regions. We aimed to compare the white-matter integrity and structure of the left thalamus–pars triangularis tracts between patients with insomnia and controls, and to characterize the relationship between white-matter integrity and clinical ...

Abnormal protein and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the prefrontal cortex of depressed individuals who died by suicide

Depression and stress are major risk factors for suicidal behaviour, and some studies show abnormalities of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of depressed and suicidal patients. However, it is not clear if similar abnormalities of cytokines are present in the brain of suicidal and depressed patients.

A negative association between brainstem pontine grey-matter volume, well-being and resilience in healthy twins

Associations between well-being, resilience to trauma and the volume of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing (e.g., threat/reward circuits) are largely unexplored, as are the roles of shared genetic and environmental factors derived from multivariate twin modelling.

Lifetime major depression and grey-matter volume

There is evidence of structural brain alterations in major depressive disorder (MDD), but little is known about how these alterations might be affected by age at onset or genetic vulnerability. This study examines whether lifetime episodes of MDD are associated with specific alterations in grey-matter volume, and whether those alterations vary according to sex or serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) genotype (LL, SL or SS).

A study of novel bilateral thermal capsulotomy with focused ultrasound for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: 2-year follow-up.

Recently, a new thermal lesioning approach using magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) was introduced for the treatment of neurologic disorders. However, only 2 studies have used this approach for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and follow-up was short-term. We investigated the efficacy and safety of bilateral thermal lesioning of the anterior limb of the internal capsule using MRgFUS in patients with treatment-refractory OCD and followed them for 2 years.

Managing disruptive behaviour in autism-spectrum disorder with guanfacine.

Resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with bipolar disorder during clinical remission: a systematic review.

Bipolar disorder is chronic and debilitating. Studies investigating resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with bipolar disorder may help to inform neurobiological models of illness.

Low levels of muscarinic M1 receptor-positive neurons in cortical layers III and V in Brodmann areas 9 and 17 from individuals with schizophrenia.

Results of neuroimaging and postmortem studies suggest that people with schizophrenia may have lower levels of muscarinic M1 receptors (CHRM1) in the cortex, but not in the hippocampus or thalamus. Here, we use a novel immunohistochemical approach to better understand the likely cause of these low receptor levels.

Neurocognitive, emotional and neuroendocrine correlates of exposure to sexual assault in women.

Survivors of sexual assault are vulnerable to long-term negative psychological and physical health outcomes, but few studies have investigated changes in cognition, emotional processing and brain function in the early stages after sexual assault. We used a multimodal approach to identify the cognitive and emotional correlates associated with sexual assault in women.

Who should be "controls" in studies on the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders?

White matter network alterations in patients with depersonalization/derealization disorder.

Depersonalization/derealization disorder (DPD) is a chronic and distressing condition characterized by detachment from oneself and/or the external world. Neuroimaging studies have associated DPD with structural and functional alterations in a variety of distinct brain regions. Such local neuronal changes might be mediated by altered interregional white matter connections. However, to our knowledge, no research on network characteristics in this patient population exists to date.

A negative association between brainstem pontine grey-matter volume, well-being and resilience in healthy twins.

Associations between well-being, resilience to trauma and the volume of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing (e.g., threat/reward circuits) are largely unexplored, as are the roles of shared genetic and environmental factors derived from multivariate twin modelling.

Low white-matter integrity between the left thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus in patients with insomnia disorder.

Previous studies have reported functional and structural abnormalities in the thalamus and the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus in patients with insomnia disorder. However, no studies have been conducted on the white-matter tracts between these 2 brain regions. We aimed to compare the white-matter integrity and structure of the left thalamus-pars triangularis tracts between patients with insomnia and controls, and to characterize the relationship between white-matter integrity and clinical fe...

Abnormal protein and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the prefrontal cortex of depressed individuals who died by suicide.

Depression and stress are major risk factors for suicidal behaviour, and some studies show abnormalities of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of depressed and suicidal patients. However, it is not clear if similar abnormalities of cytokines are present in the brain of suicidal and depressed patients.

Genetic variability in scaffolding proteins and risk for schizophrenia and autism-spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

Scaffolding proteins represent an evolutionary solution to controlling the specificity of information transfer in intracellular networks. They are highly concentrated in complexes located in specific subcellular locations. One of these complexes is the postsynaptic density of the excitatory synapses. There, scaffolding proteins regulate various processes related to synaptic plasticity, such as glutamate receptor trafficking and signalling, and dendritic structure and function. Most scaffolding proteins can ...

Is poststroke depression the same as major depression?

Grey matter correlates of autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa.

Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology.

Adolescent THC exposure in female rats leads to cognitive deficits through a mechanism involving chromatin modifications in the prefrontal cortex.

Increasing cannabis consumption among adolescents, studies that link its early use with mental illnesses, and the political debate on cannabis legalization together call for an urgent need to study molecular underpinnings of adolescent brain vulnerability. The emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric diseases led us to hypothesize that epigenetic alterations could play a role in causes and subsequent development of the depressive/psychotic-like phenotype induced by adolescent, but not adult, Δ...

A postmortem analysis of NMDA ionotropic and group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens in schizophrenia.

The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been implicated in the pathology and treatment of schizophrenia. Recent postmortem evidence suggests a hyperglutamatergic state in the NAcc. With the present study we aimed to explore possible glutamatergic alterations in the NAcc of a large schizophrenia cohort.


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