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Studies examining cross-sectional associations between age at marijuana initiation and memory deficits yield mixed results. Because longitudinal data are sparse, controversy continues regarding whether these deficits reflect premorbid risk factors or sequelae of early marijuana initiation; here, we examine this question in a community sample followed since birth.
Changes in the legality and prevalence of marijuana raise questions about whether adolescents' reasons for using marijuana and associations between reasons for use and recent marijuana use have changed historically.
Previous research has demonstrated the utility of motivational models of cannabis use to predict the frequency of use and associated negative consequences. However, few existing studies have simultaneously investigated a range of motives across different measures of use-related problems, which limit the ability to assess the differential role various motives play. The purpose of the current study was to examine cannabis use motives as predictors of three measures of cannabis use risk.
Parental cannabis use disorder (CUD) is a known risk factor in the development of adolescent cannabis use. One potential mechanism is parenting behaviors. This study considered cannabis-specific parenting strategies as a mechanism of the relation between parental CUD and adolescent cannabis use.
Policy discussions amidst recent changes in the legal status of cannabis for medical purposes have raised concerns regarding the diversion of medical cannabis to nonlicensed users. This study examined factors that predict frequency of use of diverted medical cannabis.
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of different modes of marijuana consumption (e.g., smoking, ingesting) overall and by sociodemographic factors, marijuana-related perceptions, and other substance use among adolescents, as well as to characterize differences in the usual mode of consumption before and after the initiation of retail marijuana sales in 2014.
Vaporization of marijuana products, or "vaping," has become a prevalent mode of administration and is typically perceived to hold unique benefits compared to combustible administration methods. Such positive beliefs regarding marijuana vaporization may contribute to its abuse liability. This qualitative study examined cognitions pertaining to vaping among recreational marijuana users.
Alcohol use causes approximately 10% of deaths among adults ages 20-65 in the United States. Although previous research has demonstrated differential age-related risk relationships, it is difficult to estimate the magnitude of selection bias attributable to premature mortality based on existing cohort studies, the average age of which is greater than 50 years. The objective of our study was to assess the distribution of mortality-related harms and benefits from alcohol among adults ages 20 and older in comp...
This study assesses the association between exposure to alcohol in movies and alcohol use transitions among Latin American adolescents.
Alcohol-related disorders (i.e., abuse and dependence) are significant problems that may result in numerous negative consequences. Although a number of studies have examined factors that predict alcohol abuse and dependence in European samples, only a few studies have examined whether genetic and environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of alcohol-related disorders among African Americans. The present study examined whether gene (internalizing symptoms polygenic risk score) by environment (parental ...
Despite the substantial number of older adult drinkers, few studies have examined acute alcohol effects in aging samples. We have explored these interactions across a variety of neurobehavioral domains and modalities and have consistently observed age-contingent vulnerabilities to alcohol-associated decrements in neurobehavioral functions. However, these studies have not been sufficiently powered to address sex differences, and, thus far, no attempt has been made to replicate results. The current study addr...
Training in an inhibitory control task has produced reductions in alcohol use among heavy drinkers. However, the longevity of effects remains unknown, and much research has used suboptimal control conditions. Here, we assess the effectiveness of "Beer-NoGo" inhibitory training to reduce consumption up to 4 weeks after training compared with a "Beer-Go" control task, an online version of the Brief Alcohol Intervention (BAI), and an Oddball control condition.
Among college samples, both alcohol and marijuana protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been shown to mediate the effects of known risk factors (i.e., sex, age at substance use onset, college substance use beliefs, substance use motives, and impulsivity-like traits) on alcohol and marijuana outcomes. However, it is unknown whether PBS use would operate similarly for both substances among concurrent users. The present study examined which risk factors relate to alcohol/marijuana outcomes via alcohol/ma...
Screening and brief intervention in primary care for hazardous alcohol use is potentially a means to improve public health but is seldom implemented. There are few comparisons with general practitioner screening for other lifestyle habits.
Alcohol-impaired driving is a significant source of injury and morbidity in the United States. People with alcohol use disorder (AUD) are more likely to drive while impaired by alcohol than their nonclinical counterparts. Less is known about rates of impaired driving in people with AUD and a comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). The current study examined the association among AUD, other SUDs, and alcohol-impaired driving in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States.
Black youth are more likely than White youth to deviate from the typical sequence of initiating alcohol use before marijuana use. Although potentially informative for prevention efforts, sources of variation in the sequence of alcohol relative to marijuana use initiation and associations of initiation patterns with frequency of use have rarely been examined.
Unmarried mothers have high rates of smoking, including during late pregnancy and after pregnancy, thus increasing their children's risk for negative health outcomes associated with maternal tobacco use. Few studies have examined whether partners' smoking exacerbates or attenuates maternal smoking risk. The current study examines how fathers' behaviors during the third trimester of pregnancy and after pregnancy influence maternal smoking across the first 9 years of a child's life.
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a prevalent form of substance use among adults. Because of the novelty of e-cigarettes, users may not fully understand the consequences of long-term use and the potential difficulties involved with quitting e-cigarettes. Given the projected rise in the use of e-cigarettes, it is important to understand possible contributing factors that may influence e-cigarette quit difficulty.
Research in Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) training indicates that such training can prevent over-service of alcohol and reduce drunk driving. However, reviews of the RBS literature suggest that the quality of training methods and the stability of implementation are important factors in determining RBS training effectiveness. Most RBS classes have been taught live, where the quality of instruction varies across instructors and classes, and the stability of the implementation of an RBS curriculum is vari...
Computer-delivered drinking interventions (CDIs) are administered to tens of thousands of college students each year, yet recent evidence for their efficacy has not been summarized. This meta-analysis extends the work of past reviews and investigates the efficacy of CDIs in reducing college students' alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms.
Alcohol screening and brief intervention (BI) are recommended preventive health practices. Veterans Health Administration (VA) uses a performance measure to incentivize BI delivery. Concerns have been raised about the validity of the BI performance measure, which relies on electronic health record (EHR) documentation. Our objective was to assess concordance between EHR-based documentation and patient-reported receipt of BI, and to examine correlates of concordance.